break : 普通用词，指某物因被打破或撕破而受到破坏，可指有形或无形的破坏。
- The dish fell to the floor and broke.
- Charles is always breaking things.
- She fell and broke her arm (= broke the bone in her arm).
- I dropped the vase and it broke into pieces.
- I think I've broken your phone.
- I picked it up and the handle broke off.
- We heard the sound of breaking glass.
destroy : 多指彻底地、毁灭性地破坏，含导致无用，不能或很难再修复的意味。
- Most of the old part of the city was destroyed by bombs during the war.
- The accident seemed to have completely/totally destroyed his confidence.
ruin : 多指因外部原因而受到严重破坏或毁灭，侧重破坏的彻底性，也可用于引申意义。
- Huge modern hotels have ruined this once unspoilt coastline.
- Her injury ruined her chances of winning the race.
wreck : 侧重指船只、车辆、房屋等受到严重破坏或完全毁坏，也可指计划、健康受到损害。
- The explosion shattered nearby windows and wrecked two cars.
- Our greenhouse was wrecked in last night's storm.
- He has been warned that his behaviour might wreck his chances of promotion.
damage : 多指对无生命物体的损害，造成降低价值、破坏功能等后果。
- Many buildings were badly damaged during the war.
- It was a scandal that damaged a lot of reputations.
spoil : 强调不仅会削弱力量、精力或价值，而且会导致不可避免的毁灭。
- He tried not to let the bad news spoil his evening.
- The oil spill has spoiled the whole beautiful coastline.
- I haven't seen the film, so don't spoil it for me by telling me what happens.
- You'll spoil your appetite for dinner if you have a cake now.