区别辨析blame、accuse、condemn、scold、denounce、reproach与rebuke

这些动词均含有“责备,非难”之意。

blame : 普通用词,语气较弱,仅是一般的责难、归咎于,不含用语言责骂之意。

  • Don't blame me (= it is not my fault) if you miss the bus!
    如果你没赶上公车可别怪我!
  • Hugh blames his mother for his lack of confidence.
    休把自己缺乏自信心归咎于他的母亲。
  • Hugh blames his lack of confidence on his mother.
    休把自己缺乏自信心归咎于他的母亲。

accuse : 语气比blame强,本义为归罪,可用作指非难或谴责之义。

  • "It wasn't my fault." "Don't worry, I'm not accusing you."
    “不是我的错。”“别担心,我不是在指责你。”
  • He's been accused of robbery/murder.
    他被指控犯有抢劫/谋杀罪。
  • Are you accusing me of lying?
    你是在指责我撒谎吗?
  • The surgeon was accused of negligence.
    这名外科医生被控玩忽职守。
  • The government stands accused of eroding freedom of speech.
    政府因侵犯言论自由受到谴责。

condemn : 正式用词,表示谴责,有较强的司法意味,侧重从道义或原则上的谴责。

  • The terrorist action has been condemned as an act of barbarism and cowardice.
    人们谴责这一恐怖行径是野蛮和懦弱的行为。
  • The film was condemned for its sexism.
    这部影片被指责带有性别歧视。

scold : 普通用词,多指上级对下级、长辈对后辈或雇主对雇员的态度粗暴、言词激烈的数落。

  • His mother scolded him for breaking her favourite vase.
    母亲因为他打碎了她最心爱的花瓶而责骂他。
  • She writes me often, if only to scold me because I haven't written to her.
    她常来信,即使仅仅为了责怪我还没回信给她。

denounce与condemn同义,但着重公开性。

  • The government's economic policy has been denounced on all sides.
    政府的经济政策受到了各方面的谴责。
  • We must denounce injustice and oppression.
    我们必须对不公和压迫现象予以谴责。

reproach : 侧重指因他人粗心、自私等引起不满而去指责、找岔。

  • She is quick to reproach anyone who doesn't live up to her own high standards.
    只要有人不符合她自己的高标准,她马上就会加以指责。
  •  

    His mother reproached him for not eating all his dinner.
    他因为吃晚饭时没有把饭全吃完而受到妈妈的责备。

  • You have nothing to reproach yourself for/with.
    你没有什么可自责的。

rebuke : 多指上级对下级进行的公开、强烈、严正而不宽容的责备。隐含一定权威的意味。

  • I was rebuked by my manager for being late.
    我因为迟到而遭到经理的训斥。
  • The president rebuked the House and Senate for not passing those bills within 100 days.
    总统谴责参众两院没有在100天之内通过那些法案。
  • The company was publicly rebuked for having neglected safety procedures.
    公司因忽略了安全规程而受到公开批评。