纽约时报官方译文 | 快递、邻居、性生活?新冠病毒会通过它们传播吗

Surfaces? Sneezes? Sex? How the Coronavirus Can and Cannot Spread
快递、邻居、性生活?新冠病毒会通过它们传播吗

A delicate but highly contagious virus, roughly one-900th the width of a human hair, is spreading from person to person around the world. The coronavirus, as it’s known, has already infected people in at least 60 countries.
一种细小——大概有一根人类头发的九百分之一那么粗——而具有高度传染性的病毒正在世界各地人际间传播。正如大家所知,这种冠状病毒已经感染了至少60个国家的人。

Because this virus is so new, experts’ understanding of how it spreads is limited. They can, however, offer some guidance about how it does — and does not — seem to be transmitted.
因为这种病毒很新,专家们对于它如何传播了解有限。但是,他们能够提供一些关于这种病毒看来会怎样传播、而不会怎样传播的指导。

If I cross paths with a sick person, will I get sick too?
如果我遇到一名患者,我会得病吗?

You walk into a crowded grocery store. A shopper has coronavirus. What puts you most at risk of getting infected by that person?
你走进一间挤满人的杂货店。一名顾客携带有冠状病毒。哪些状况最容易让你被其感染?

Experts agree they have a great deal to learn, but four factors likely play some role: how close you get; how long you are near the person; whether that person projects viral droplets on you; and how much you touch your face. (Of course, your age and health are also major factors.)
专家们承认自己对许多情况尚不了解,但以下四个因素很可能会有所影响:你距离这个人有多近;你在他/她附近停留了多长时间;此人喷出的飞沫是否落到了你的身上;以及你有没有一直摸脸。(当然,你的年龄和健康状况也是重要因素。)

What’s a viral droplet?
什么是病毒性飞沫?

It is a droplet containing viral particles. A virus is a tiny codependent microbe that attaches to a cell, takes over, makes more of itself and moves on to its next host. This is its “lifestyle,” said Gary Whittaker, a professor of virology at Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine.
病毒性飞沫是指含有病毒颗粒的飞沫。病毒是依附于细胞的极小共生性微生物,它会接管细胞、自我增殖,并接着寻找下一个宿主。这是它的“生存方式”,康奈尔大学兽医学院的病毒学教授盖理·惠特克(Gary Whittaker)说。

A “naked” virus can’t go anywhere unless it’s hitching a ride with a droplet of mucus or saliva, said Kin-on Kwok, a professor at the Chinese University of Hong Kong’s Jockey Club School of Public Health and Primary Care.
香港中文大学赛马会公共卫生及基层医疗学院教授郭健安说,一个“裸露的”病毒寸步难行,除非它搭上黏液或者唾液飞沫的便车。

These mucus and saliva droplets are ejected from the mouth or nose as we cough, sneeze, laugh, sing, breathe and talk. If they don’t hit something along the way, they typically land on the floor or ground.
这些黏液和唾液飞沫在我们咳嗽、打喷嚏、发笑、唱歌、呼吸和说话时,从我们的嘴巴或鼻子里喷出。如果没有触碰到物体,它们通常会落到地板或地面上。

To get access to your cells, the viral droplets must enter through the eyes, nose or mouth. Some experts believe that sneezing and coughing are likely the primary forms of transmission. Professor Kwok said talking face-to-face or sharing a meal with someone could pose a risk.
病毒性飞沫必须经过眼睛、鼻子或嘴巴才能到达你身体上的细胞。一些专家认为,打喷嚏和咳嗽可能是病毒最主要的两种传播方式。郭健安教授称,与人面对面讲话或者共餐也会造成风险。

Julian Tang, a virologist and professor at the University of Leicester in England who is researching coronavirus with Professor Kwok, agreed.
与郭健安合作从事冠状病毒研究的英格兰莱斯特大学教授、病毒学家朱利安·唐(Julian Tang)同意上述说法。

“If you can smell what someone had for lunch — garlic, curry, etc. — you are inhaling what they are breathing out, including any virus in their breath,” he said.
“如果你能闻出别人午餐吃了什么——大蒜、咖喱等——那么你就正在吸入他们呼出的气体,包括其中的所有病毒,”唐教授说。

How close is too close?
与感染者的距离多近是太近?

Christian Lindmeier, a spokesman for the World Health Organization, said it’s best to stay three feet from a sick person.
世界卫生组织发言人克里斯蒂安·林德梅尔(Christian Lindmeier)说,最好距离患者三英尺(约0.9米)以上。

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said that standing within six feet could carry risk.
美国疾病控制与预防中心则表示,站在患者周围六英尺(约1.8米)以内会有风险。

How long is too long to be near an infected person?
在感染者附近停留多久是太久?

It’s not yet clear, but most experts agree that more time equals more risk.
还不清楚,但大多数专家都认为,时间越长,感染的风险越大。

Will you know a person is sick?
你能看出一个人是否患病了吗?

Not necessarily.
不一定。

Keep in mind that if you do get sick, most symptoms are as mild as a cold or the flu. Still, others who are infected with coronavirus never fall ill at all. (Technically, COVID-19 is the name for the sickness caused by the respiratory virus.)
记住,如果你真的生病了,大多数症状会像感冒或者流感症状那样轻微。甚至,一些被冠状病毒感染的人从始至终根本没有表现出病征。(严格来说,COVID-19是由此次暴发的呼吸道病毒所导致的疾病的名称。)

But the flip side of this is that it can be hard to tell who is capable of spreading coronavirus.
但这种情况造成的反面效应是,判断谁能够传播病毒会变得困难。

In a growing number of cases, people without symptoms have infected others. The W.H.O. still believes that most of those who have spread coronavirus were clearly ill at the time of transmission, Mr. Lindmeier said.
无症状患者感染他人的情况正在增加。林德梅尔说,世界卫生组织仍然认为,大多数具有传染性的患者在传染病毒时有着明显的病征表现。

Can the virus last on a bus pole, touch screen or other surface?
病毒可以在巴士扶杆、触摸屏或其他东西的表面上持续存在吗?

Yes. After numerous people who attended a Buddhist temple in Hong Kong fell ill, the city’s Center for Health Protection collected samples from the site. Restroom faucets and the cloth covers over Buddhist texts tested positive for coronavirus, the agency said.
可以。在数名去过香港一间佛堂的人患病后,香港卫生防护中心从那里采集了样本。中心表示,洗手间的水龙头和盖在佛经上的布的病毒检测均呈阳性。

Technically, the virus widely known as the coronavirus is just the latest of many similarly shaped viruses. (Coronaviruses are named for the spikes that protrude from their surfaces, which resemble a crown or the sun’s corona.) A study of other coronaviruses found they remained on metal, glass and plastic for two hours to nine days.
严格意义上讲,被广泛称作冠状病毒的病毒只是许多形状相似的病毒中的最新一种。(冠状病毒以其表面突出的尖峰而得名,它们类似于树冠或太阳的日冕。)对其他冠状病毒的研究发现,它们在金属、玻璃和塑料上能够存活两个小时至九天。

Whether a surface looks dirty or clean is irrelevant. If an infected person sneezed and a droplet landed on a surface, a person who then touches that surface could pick it up. How much is required to infect a person is unclear.
表面看起来脏还是干净无关紧要,如果被感染的人打喷嚏,并且把飞沫喷溅在表面上,那么接触该表面的人就可能会被感染。感染一个人需要多少病毒量尚不清楚。

Coronaviruses are relatively easy to destroy, Professor Whittaker said. Using a simple disinfectant on a surface is nearly guaranteed to break the delicate envelope that surrounds the tiny microbe, rendering it harmless.
惠特克教授表示,冠状病毒相对来说是比较容易消灭的。在表面使用普通消毒剂,就几乎可以保证能破坏这一微小的微生物周围的细小包膜,使其变得无害。

As long as you wash your hands before touching your face, you should be OK, because viral droplets don’t pass through skin.
只要在接触面部之前先洗手,你就应该不会患病,因为飞沫无法穿过皮肤。

Does the brand or type of soap you use matter?
使用的肥皂品牌或类型重要吗?

No, several experts said.
几位专家表示,不重要。

My neighbor is coughing. Should I be worried?
我的邻居在咳嗽。我应该担心吗?

There is no evidence that viral particles can go through walls or glass, said Dr. Ashish K. Jha, director of the Harvard Global Health Institute.
哈佛全球健康研究所所长阿什·K·贾(Ashish K. Jha)博士说,没有证据表明病毒颗粒可以穿过墙壁或玻璃。

He said he was more concerned about common spaces than dangers posed by vents, provided there is good air circulation in a room.
他表示,只要室内空气流通良好,他更担心的是公共空间,而非通风口带来的危险。

An infected neighbor might sneeze on a railing and if you touched it, “that would be a more natural way to get it from your neighbor,” he said.
被感染的邻居可能会把喷嚏溅到栏杆上,如果你触摸了栏杆,“那会是被邻居感染的更可能的方式,”他说。

Can I get it from making out with someone?
我会因为和别人亲热而感染病毒吗?

Kissing could definitely spread it, several experts said.
几位专家说,接吻肯定可以传播病毒。

Though coronaviruses are not typically sexually transmitted, it’s too soon to know, the W.H.O. said.
世界卫生组织表示,尽管冠状病毒通常不通过性行为传播,但目前下定论还为时过早。

Is it safe to eat where people are sick with coronavirus?
在有新冠病毒感染者工作的地方吃饭安全吗?

If a sick person handles the food or it’s a high-traffic buffet, then risks cannot be ruled out — but heating or reheating food should kill the virus, Professor Whittaker said.
惠特克教授说,如果感染者处理食物,或者在人很多的地方吃自助餐,那么不能排除感染风险,但加热或重新加热食物应该可以杀死病毒。

Dr. Jha concurred.
贾博士同意他的说法。

“As a general rule, we haven’t seen that food is a mechanism for spreading,” he said.
“一般来说,我们还没有看到食物作为传播机制的情况,”他说。

Can my dog or cat safely join me in quarantine?
我的狗或猫可以安全地和我一起隔离吗?

Thousands of people have already begun various types of quarantines. Some have been mandated by health officials, and others are voluntary and primarily involve staying home.
成千上万人已开始以各种方式进行隔离。一部分是被卫生官员强制要求的,其他是自愿的,主要的隔离方式就是呆在家里。

Can a cat or dog join someone to make quarantine less lonely?
猫或狗可以和人一起隔离,以减轻孤独感吗?

Professor Whittaker, who has studied the spread of coronaviruses in animals and humans, said he’s seen no evidence that a person could be a danger to their pet.
研究冠状病毒在动物和人类中的传播的惠特克教授表示,他尚未发现人类可能对宠物造成危险的证据。