《新疆的文化保护与发展》白皮书(中英对照双语全文)

微信关注:田间小站

新疆的文化保护与发展
Cultural Protection and Development in Xinjiang

中华人民共和国国务院新闻办公室
The State Council Information Office of the People’s Republic of China

2018年11月
November 2018

 

目录
Contents

前言
Preamble

一、新疆各民族文化是中华文化的组成部分
I.Xinjiang Ethnic Cultures Are Part of the Chinese Culture

二、各民族语言文字广泛使用
II.The Spoken and Written Languages of Ethnic Groups Are Widely Used

三、宗教文化受到尊重和保护
III.Respecting and Protecting Religious Culture

四、文化遗产保护和传承取得成就
IV.Protecting and Carrying Forward Cultural Heritage

五、文化事业和文化产业不断发展
V.Constant Development of Cultural Undertakings and the Cultural Industry

六、对外文化交流日趋活跃
VI.Active Cultural Exchanges with Other Countries

结束语
Conclusion

 

前言
Preamble

中国是统一的多民族国家。在5000多年文明发展史中,中华各民族共同创造了悠久历史、灿烂文化。新疆自古以来就是多民族迁徙聚居生活的地方,也是多种文化交流交融的舞台。在历史长河中,新疆各民族文化扎根中华文明沃土,既推动了各民族文化发展,也丰富了中华文化内涵。
China is a unified multi-ethnic country. In the course of a civilization that dates back more than 5,000 years, the various ethnic groups of China have created a long history and a splendid culture. Since ancient times many ethnic groups have made their way to Xinjiang, and it has become their home and a place for cultural integration. Various ethnic cultures of Xinjiang have their roots in the fertile soil of Chinese civilization, advancing their own cultural development while enriching the overall culture of China.

中华人民共和国成立后,中国政府高度重视新疆各民族优秀传统文化的挖掘、传承与保护,坚持创造性转化、创新性发展,鼓励各民族相互学习语言文字,促进各民族交往交流交融,尊重各民族宗教信仰自由,推动文化事业和文化产业发展,推进各民族文化现代化,加强对外文化交流,在不同文化交流互鉴中,增强文化自信。
Since the People's Republic of China was founded in 1949, the Chinese government has attached great importance to documenting and protecting the excellent traditional ethnic cultures in Xinjiang, and ensuring that they are passed on to succeeding generations. It has promoted creative transformation and innovative development, encouraging these ethnic groups to learn spoken and written languages from each other, promoted communication and integration, respected their freedom of religious belief, and worked to develop their cultural undertakings and industries. The government has worked to modernize ethnic cultures, to strengthen cultural exchanges with foreign countries, and to enhance each group's cultural confidence while engaging in exchanges with and mutual learning from others.

 

一、新疆各民族文化是中华文化的组成部分
I. Xinjiang Ethnic Cultures Are Part of the Chinese Culture

新疆历来是多民族聚居、多种文化并存地区。各民族文化长期交流交融,在中华文明沃土中枝繁叶茂,是中华文化的组成部分。
Since ancient times, Xinjiang has been home to various ethnic groups, where different ethnic cultures coexist. Through many years of communication and integration, these cultures thrive in the fertile soil of China's civilization and are part of the Chinese culture.

各民族文化是中华文化不可分割的一部分。自古以来,中华文化因环境多样性而呈现丰富多元形态。各民族文化在中华大地上交流交融,形成气象恢宏的中华文化。各民族文化都是中华民族共有精神财富,为中华文化的发展与进步做出了贡献。
Ethnic cultures make up an inseparable part of the Chinese culture. Since ancient times, China has been multicultural as a result of the diversity of its environment. Different ethnic cultures have communicated and integrated with each other, constituting a legacy shared by the Chinese nation that has brought into being a splendid Chinese culture.

早在先秦时期,新疆就与中原地区展开了密切交流,考古证实,新疆出土的彩陶就受到黄河中游地区仰韶文化的影响,在河南安阳的商代妇好墓中,陪葬了大量新疆和田玉制成的器物。西汉统一新疆地区后,汉语成为西域官府文书中的通用语之一。中原的农业生产技术、礼仪制度、汉文书籍、音乐舞蹈等在西域广泛传播。西域的乐器与音乐传入中原,对中原音乐产生重大影响。中华文化宝库中,就包括维吾尔族十二木卡姆艺术、哈萨克族阿依特斯艺术、柯尔克孜族史诗《玛纳斯》、蒙古族卫拉特史诗《江格尔》等各民族的优秀文化作品。
As early as in the pre-Qin period (c. 2100-221 BC), Xinjiang was in close contact with the Central Plains. Archaeological excavations demonstrate that painted potteryware unearthed in Xinjiang shows the influence of the Yangshao Culture in the middle reaches of the Yellow River, while many articles made from Xinjiang's Hetian jade were unearthed in the Shang-dynasty (c.1600 BC-1046 BC) Tomb of Fu Hao in Anyang, Henan in central China. After the Western Han (206 BC-AD 25) united Xinjiang, Chinese became one of the official languages used in government documents of the Western Regions where Xinjiang is located. Agricultural production techniques, the system of etiquette, Chinese-language books, music, and dances of the Central Plains spread widely in the Western Regions. Musical instruments and music from the Western Regions were introduced to the Central Plains and exerted a great influence on local music. The treasure house of Chinese culture boasts elements of the Uygur Muqam, the Kazak Aytes art, the Kirgiz epic Manas, the Jangar epic of the Oirat Mongols, and many other great cultural works of various ethnic groups.

新疆地区历来多种文化并存。中国的历史演进,决定了各民族在分布上交错杂居、经济上相互依存、文化上兼收并蓄的基本特征。新疆独特的自然地理环境造就了绿洲农耕与草原游牧文化的相得益彰,不同生产生活方式的族群交流互补、迁徙汇聚,开创了多种文化并存的生动局面。
Different cultures have long coexisted in Xinjiang. China's historical evolution has determined that various ethnic groups live together. They are economically interdependent and embrace each other's cultures. The unique natural environment and geographical conditions in Xinjiang resulted in the development of refined oasis farming and grassland nomadism, and migrating ethnic groups with different lifestyles and working practices communicated with, complemented and integrated with each other, creating a dynamic coexistence of different cultures.

新疆地区陆续发现大约20种语言文字。时至今日,汉藏语系、阿尔泰语系、印欧语系诸语言仍在新疆存在。生活中各民族语言兼用是新疆文化的传统特征。新疆各民族在交往交流交融中,不同语言的互借互用成为普遍现象。新疆克孜尔千佛洞、柏孜克里克石窟、北庭故城等融合了汉、回鹘、吐蕃以及新疆古代居民的多种文化元素,是古代中国文化艺术的典范。
Around 20 different spoken and written languages have been identified in Xinjiang. The Sino-Tibetan, Altaic, and Indo-European languages still exist in Xinjiang today, and a traditional feature of Xinjiang culture is that different languages are used in daily life. It was common for different ethnic groups to borrow from and use each other's languages. The Kizil Thousand-Buddha Caves, Bezkilik Grottoes, Beiting Ancient City Site, and some other Xinjiang sites that integrate multiple cultural factors from the Han, Huihu (an ancient name for modern Uygur), Tubo (an ancient name for modern Tibetan) and other ancient residents of Xinjiang are typical of the culture and art of ancient China.

历史上新疆是中华文明向西开放的门户和中介。丝绸之路的畅通开启了东西方文化交流交融的新篇章。丝绸之路繁盛时期,中国的造纸术、桑蚕丝织等先进技术通过新疆西传,对世界文明产生了深远影响。佛教、摩尼教、景教沿着丝绸之路传播到新疆,和当时的原始宗教一起在当地流传。在漫长的历史演进中,新疆多种宗教并存的情况从未发生改变。新疆的文化景观始终是多种文化并存、多元文化交流。
Historically Xinjiang was the gateway and medium through which the Chinese civilization opened to the West. The Silk Road opened a new chapter in cultural exchanges and integration between East and West. China's papermaking, sericulture, silk weaving, and other advanced technologies spread to the West via Xinjiang during the glory days of the Silk Road, exerting a far-reaching impact on world civilizations. Buddhism, Manichaeism and Nestorianism were introduced into Xinjiang through the Silk Road, and practiced together with primitive local religions. During Xinjiang's long historical evolution, it has always been a place where many religions have coexisted. The cultural landscape of Xinjiang has long been characterized by coexistence and communication between different cultures.

各民族文化长期交流交融。中华文化是凝聚各民族的精神纽带。在长期的生产生活中,各民族文化交流交融始终贯穿于中华文化形成、发展的全过程。受中原文化影响,新疆地区的蚕桑技术与丝绸织造取得了相当成就;最初形成于漠北时期的回鹘文化,深受我国北方游牧文化、中原文化以及佛教、摩尼教等影响。在各个历史发展阶段,各民族互学互鉴,涌现出一批政治家、文学家、艺术家、史学家、农学家、翻译家等,助推新疆各民族文化在中华文化怀抱中进一步发展。中华人民共和国成立后,在中国共产党领导下,新疆各民族文化进入新的繁荣发展时期,《我们的祖国是花园》《我们新疆好地方》等经典歌曲传唱大江南北;《冰山上的来客》《库尔班大叔上北京》等优秀电影在全国家喻户晓,成为各民族共同创造、共同享有的精神财富。
There is a long history of different ethnic cultures communicating and integrating with each other. The Chinese culture is a bond that unites various ethnic groups, while in the course of daily life and work, the communication between and integration of different ethnic cultures has helped to form and develop the Chinese culture. Influenced by the culture of the Central Plains, Xinjiang learned and rapidly developed sericulture and silk weaving. The Huihu culture that originated in the Mobei (the area north of the vast deserts on the Mongolian Plateau) regime was deeply influenced by the nomadic culture of northern China, Central Plains culture, Buddhism and Manichaeism. In different stages of history, various ethnic groups learned from each other, resulting in the emergence of a number of statesmen, writers, artists, historians, agronomists, and translators who made further contribution to the development of the ethnic cultures of Xinjiang in the embrace of the Chinese culture. After the People's Republic of China was founded in 1949, and under the leadership of the Communist Party of China (CPC), the ethnic cultures of Xinjiang entered a new period of prosperity and development. Our Motherland Is a Garden, Xinjiang, a Good Place and other classic songs are heard around the country; Visitors on the Icy Mountain, Uncle Kurban Visits Beijing and other quality films have become widely known. They are elements of a cultural wealth that has been created by and is shared by all ethnic groups.

新疆各民族成员共居、共学、共事、共乐,在语言、饮食、服饰、音乐、舞蹈、绘画、建筑等社会生活和文化艺术各方面相互影响、吸收融合,“你中有我,我中有你”始终是各民族文化的共同特点。
The ethnic groups of Xinjiang live together, study together, work together, and share happiness. They influence, assimilate and integrate with each other in language, diet, costume, music, dance, painting, architecture and other aspects of social life, culture and art. A common feature of these ethnic cultures is that all are interrelated.

打赏

微信赞赏支付宝赞赏