《中国的核安全》白皮书(中英对照双语全文)

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中国的核安全
Nuclear Safety in China

(2019年9月)

中华人民共和国
国务院新闻办公室
The State Council Information Office of
the People’s Republic of China
September 2019

 

目录
Contents

前言
Preface

一、树立理性、协调、并进的核安全观
I. Following a Rational, Coordinated and Balanced Nuclear Safety Strategy

二、构建核安全政策法规体系
II. Building a Policy and Legal Framework on Nuclear Safety

三、实施科学有效安全监管
III. Ensuring Effective Regulation of Nuclear Safety

四、保持高水平安全
IV. Maintaining High-Level Safety

五、营造共建共享的核安全氛围
V. Co-building and Sharing Nuclear Safety

六、打造核安全命运共同体
VI. Building a Community of Shared Future for Nuclear Safety

结束语
Conclusion

 

前言
Preface

原子的发现和核能的开发利用,给人类发展带来了新的动力,极大增强了人类认识世界和改造世界的能力。同时,核能发展也伴生着安全风险和挑战。人类要更好利用核能、实现更大发展,必须应对好各种核安全挑战,维护好核安全。
The discovery of the atom and the subsequent development and utilization of nuclear energy have given a new impetus to the progress of humanity and greatly enhanced our ability to understand and shape the world. Yet nuclear energy has associated risks and challenges. To better utilize nuclear energy and achieve greater progress, we must properly respond to the challenges it poses and ensure nuclear safety.

中华人民共和国成立初期,面对国家建设和发展的需要,中国政府作出了开发利用核能的重大决定,中国核事业(注1)正式起步。近70年来,中国核事业从无到有、持续发展,形成了完备的核工业体系,为保障能源安全、保护生态环境、提高人民生活水平、促进经济高质量发展作出了重要贡献。中国始终把保障核安全作为重要的国家责任,融入核能开发利用全过程,始终以安全为前提发展核事业,按照最严格标准实施监督管理,始终积极适应核事业发展的新要求,不断推动核安全与时俱进、创新发展,保持了良好的安全记录,走出一条中国特色核安全之路。
In the early days of the People’s Republic of China, due to the requirement for national development, the Chinese government made a major decision to develop and utilize nuclear energy, officially launching its nuclear industry. Over the past 70 years, China’s nuclear industry has grown from scratch, developed steadily, and formed a complete system, which has made an important contribution to ensuring energy security, protecting the environment, improving people’s living standards, and promoting high-quality economic development. China has always regarded nuclear safety as an important national responsibility, and integrated it into the entire process of nuclear energy development and utilization. It has always developed the nuclear industry subject to considerations of safety, implemented regulation in accordance with the strictest standards, and adapted to the new requirements of the nuclear industry. China’s nuclear industry has always developed in line with the latest safety standards and maintained a good safety record, pursuing an innovation-driven path of nuclear safety with Chinese characteristics.

党的十八大以来,中国的核安全事业进入安全高效发展的新时期。习近平主席提出理性、协调、并进的核安全观,强调发展和安全并重,倡导打造全球核安全命运共同体,为新时期中国核安全发展指明了方向,为推进核能开发利用国际合作、实现全球持久核安全提供了中国方案。在核安全观引领下,中国逐步构建起法律规范、行政监管、行业自律、技术保障、人才支撑、文化引领、社会参与、国际合作等为主体的核安全治理体系,核安全防线更加牢固。
Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, China’s nuclear industry has entered a new period of safe and efficient development. President Xi Jinping proposed a rational, coordinated and balanced nuclear safety strategy, placing equal emphasis on development and safety, and advocating building a community of shared future for global nuclear safety – he has pointed out the direction for China’s nuclear safety for a new era, and provided the Chinese approach to international cooperation in the development and utilization of nuclear energy, and to lasting global nuclear safety. Under the guidance of this strategy, China has gradually built a nuclear safety governance system with legal norms, administrative regulation, industry self-discipline, technical support, personnel support, cultural guidance, public participation, and international cooperation as the pillars. The guarantee of nuclear safety is stronger.

作为构建公平、合作、共赢的国际核安全体系的重要倡导者、推动者和参与者,中国在做好自身核安全的同时,认真履行核安全国际义务,大力推动核安全双多边合作,积极促进核能和平利用造福全人类,为全球核安全治理贡献了中国智慧、中国力量。
China is an important advocate, promoter and participant in building a fair, collaborative and mutually beneficial international nuclear safety system. It has done a good job in ensuring its own nuclear safety, fulfilled its international obligations, and promoted bilateral and multilateral cooperation on nuclear safety. We have actively promoted the peaceful use of nuclear energy for the benefit of all humanity and contributed China’s wisdom and strength to global nuclear safety governance.

为介绍中国核安全事业发展历程,阐述中国核安全的基本原则和政策主张,分享中国核安全监管的理念和实践,阐明中国推进全球核安全治理进程的决心和行动,特发布本白皮书。
This white paper is being released to introduce China’s approach to nuclear safety, elaborate on its basic principles and policies, share the concepts and practices of regulation, and clarify China’s determination to promote global nuclear safety governance and the actions it has taken to achieve this.

 

一、树立理性、协调、并进的核安全观
I. Following a Rational, Coordinated and Balanced Nuclear Safety Strategy

2014年3月24日,在荷兰海牙第三届核安全峰会上,习近平主席提出理性、协调、并进的核安全观。中国核安全观是习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想在核安全领域的集中体现,是中国总体国家安全观的重要组成部分,是核安全治理领域的重大理论创新,是推进国际核安全进程的重要里程碑,为解决核安全全球治理的根本性问题,构建核安全命运共同体指明了原则、方法和路径。
On March 24, 2014, at the third Nuclear Security Summit in The Hague, the Netherlands, President Xi Jinping proposed a rational, coordinated and balanced nuclear safety strategy. China’s nuclear safety strategy is the embodiment of Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era in the nuclear field, an important element of China’s overall national security framework, and a major innovation in the theory of nuclear safety governance. The strategy is an important milestone in promoting international nuclear safety. It lays out the principles and methods for addressing the fundamental issues of global nuclear safety governance and building a community of shared future for nuclear safety.

中国核安全观的核心内涵是“四个并重”。全面系统推进核安全进程,是中国核安全观的核心要义,体现为发展和安全并重、权利和义务并重、自主和协作并重、治标和治本并重。
The kernel of China’s nuclear safety strategy is the “Four Emphases”. Systematically promoting nuclear safety in an all-round way is the main purpose of China’s nuclear safety strategy, which is embodied in equal emphasis on development and safety, rights and obligations, independent efforts and coordination, and symptoms and root causes.

——发展和安全并重,以确保安全为前提发展核能事业。发展是安全的基础,安全是发展的条件。发展和安全是人类和平利用核能的基本诉求,犹如车之两轮、鸟之双翼,相辅相成、缺一不可。应秉持为发展求安全、以安全促发展的理念,让发展和安全两个目标有机融合、相互促进。只有实现更好发展,才能真正管控安全风险;只有实现安全保障,核能才能持续发展。
– We should place equal emphasis on development and safety, and develop the nuclear industry in a context of guaranteed safety. Development is the foundation of safety, while safety is a precondition of development. Development and safety are the basic requirements of humanity for the peaceful use of nuclear energy. We should uphold the concept of seeking safety for development and promoting development with safety, so that the two objectives can be integrated and mutually reinforcing. Only by achieving better development can we truly control safety risks; and only by guaranteeing safety can nuclear energy achieve sustainable development.

——权利和义务并重,以尊重各国权益为基础推进国际核安全进程。各国应切实履行核安全国际法律文书规定的义务,全面执行联合国安理会有关决议,巩固和发展现有核安全法律框架。同时,坚持公平原则,秉持务实精神,尊重各国根据本国国情采取适合自身的核安全政策和举措的权利,尊重各国保护核安全敏感信息的权利。
– We should place equal emphasis on rights and obligations, and promote international nuclear safety on the basis of respect for the rights and interests of all countries. States should effectively fulfill their obligations under the international legal instruments on nuclear safety, fully implement the relevant resolutions of the United Nations Security Council, and consolidate and develop the existing legal framework for nuclear safety. At the same time, we should adhere to the principle of fairness and uphold pragmatism in respecting the right of all countries to adopt their own nuclear safety policies and measures suited to their national conditions, and respecting their right to protect sensitive nuclear safety information.

——自主和协作并重,以互利共赢为途径寻求普遍核安全。核安全首先是国家课题,首要责任应由各国政府承担。各国政府应知责任、负责任,既对自己负责,也对世界负责,加强协作、共建共享、互利共赢,既从中受益,也作出贡献,努力实现核安全进程全球化。
– We should place equal emphasis on independent efforts and coordination, and seek universal nuclear safety with a mutually beneficial approach. Nuclear safety is first and foremost a national issue, and the primary responsibility should be borne by the government of each country. Governments should understand and undertake their responsibilities, and be responsible not only to themselves but also to the world. They should strengthen coordination, make joint efforts, share achievements, and seek mutual benefit. We should benefit from and contribute to nuclear safety, and endeavor to globalize nuclear safety.

——治标和治本并重,以消除根源为目标全面推进核安全努力。完善核安全政策举措,发展现代化和低风险核能,坚持核材料供需平衡,加强防扩散出口控制,深化打击核恐怖主义国际合作,消除核安全隐患和核扩散风险。各国应团结起来,发展和谐友善的国家关系,共同营造和平稳定的国际环境,从根源上解决核恐怖主义和核扩散问题,实现核能的持久安全和发展。
– We should place equal emphasis on symptoms and root causes, and comprehensively promote nuclear safety by eliminating the root causes of risk. We will improve nuclear safety policy measures, develop modern and low-risk nuclear energy, maintain a balance between supply and demand in nuclear materials, strengthen non-proliferation efforts and export control, further international cooperation against nuclear terrorism, and eliminate potential dangers to nuclear safety and risks of nuclear proliferation. All countries should work together to develop harmonious and friendly relations, create a peaceful and stable international environment, and solve the problems of nuclear terrorism and proliferation from the root, thus realizing the lasting safety and development of nuclear energy.

中国在确保安全基础上开展核能和平利用,既满足当代人的需要,又不对子孙后代遗留隐患、构成危害,以保障人类文明永续发展。中国核安全工作的基本原则是:安全第一、依法治核,预防为主、纵深防御,责任明确、独立监管,严格管理、全面保障。
China practices peaceful use of nuclear energy on the basis of ensuring safety, which responds to the needs of the people today and will not leave any risk or cause harm to future generations. This practice will guarantee the sustainable development of human civilization.The basic principles of China’s nuclear safety are: putting safety first and exercising nuclear safety governance in accordance with the law, focusing on risk prevention and implementing defense-in-depth, ensuring clear lines of responsibility and independent regulation, and practicing strict management and providing comprehensive guarantees.

——安全第一、依法治核。牢固树立“安全大于天”的观念,确保核安全决策不受其他因素影响。不断健全核安全法律法规体系,确保依法依规开发利用核能。
– Putting safety first and exercising nuclear safety governance in accordance with the law. We should establish the concept that safety is of the utmost importance and ensure that nuclear safety is the paramount consideration in decision-making. We will continue to improve the system of laws and regulations on nuclear safety, and ensure that nuclear energy is developed and utilized in accordance with the law.

——预防为主、纵深防御。重视通过成熟的设计、高质量的建造和运行管理,消除隐患,预防核事故发生。贯彻纵深防御理念,设置多道防御屏障和多重保护,强化防御措施的完整性、独立性和有效性。
– Focusing on risk prevention and implementing defense-in-depth. We should concentrate our efforts on eliminating potential risks and preventing nuclear accidents through mature design, high-quality construction, and sound operational management. Following the principle of defense-in-depth, we set up multiple barriers and multiple forms of protection, and strengthen the integrity, independence, and effectiveness of preventative measures.

——责任明确、独立监管。核设施营运单位对核安全负全面责任。国家核安全监管部门独立实施核安全监管;国家核工业主管部门、能源主管部门和其他有关部门按照职责分工负责有关的核安全管理工作。
– Ensuring clear lines of responsibility and independent regulation. Nuclear facility operating organizations shall take overall responsibility for safety. The national nuclear safety regulatory body implements independent regulation; the nuclear industry and energy authorities, and other relevant authorities are responsible for the management of nuclear safety in accordance with the division of duties.

——严格管理、全面保障。严格落实核安全法律法规和标准要求,通过行政许可、技术审评、监督执法等方式实施监管。建立核安全工作协调机制,完善核安全政策法规,制定实施核安全规划,培育核安全文化,加强资源配置和能力建设,全面保障核安全。
– Practicing strict management and providing comprehensive guarantees. We should strictly implement nuclear safety laws, regulations and standards, and carry out regulation through administrative licensing, technical review, surveillance, and law enforcement. We will establish a coordination mechanism for nuclear safety, improve the relevant policies and regulations, formulate and implement relevant plans, foster a nuclear safety culture, and strengthen resource allocation and capacity building, so as to ensure comprehensive nuclear safety.

(注1)本白皮书不包括中国香港特别行政区、中国澳门特别行政区、台湾省相关情况。

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