经济学人官方译文 | 一部关于劳工权利的美国纪录片在中国引起了共鸣

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Blue-collar workers
蓝领工人
Reflecting back
回响
An American documentary about labour rights strikes a chord in China
一部关于劳工权利的美国纪录片在中国引起了共鸣

THE COMMENTS came in thick and fast on Douban, a social network popular with film buffs and bookworms. More appeared on Weibo, a microblogging website, where the hashtag #AmericanFactory has gained more than 16m views. The documentary of that name, by a film-making couple from Ohio, was released on August 21st on Netflix. The American firm’s streaming service is not available in China, but pirated copies of the film have proliferated. Strikingly, it has drawn praise—even as the Sino-American trade war stokes nationalist feelings within China.
在电影爱好者和书虫聚集的社交网站豆瓣上,评论铺天盖地。微博上的就更多了——带“#美国工厂”(#AmericanFactory)标签的话题浏览量已过1600万。由俄亥俄州一对夫妇拍摄的纪录片《美国工厂》于8月21日在Netflix上播出。这家美国公司的流媒体服务尚未进入中国大陆,但这部影片的盗版在中国已经遍地开花。出人意料的是它颇受褒扬,尽管眼下中美贸易战正在中国国内激起民族主义情绪。

That reception is partly a testament to the faultlessly balanced take of “American Factory”, shaped by 1,200 hours of rare footage. Much was shot inside a plant in Dayton, Ohio, which was taken over in 2014 by Fuyao, a Chinese glass-making giant that supplies the global car industry. In 2008 General Motors had closed its complex there, so for jobless local people Fuyao’s arrival was a miracle. Before long, however, Stakhanovite bosses clashed with a restive and outspoken factory floor. The film is a parable of modern manufacturing, showing the strengths and weaknesses of each country. For Chinese viewers, the failings of theirs hit home.
这样的反响一定程度上证明《美国工厂》实现了极为平衡的展示。这部影片是由1200个小时的珍贵的镜头剪辑而成,大部分是在俄亥俄州代顿(Dayton)的一家工厂内拍摄的。这家工厂于2014年被福耀收购,这家中国玻璃制造巨头为全球汽车业供货。2008年,通用汽车关闭了当地的工厂,因此对失业的当地人来说,福耀的到来是一件天大的幸事。然而没过多久,斯达汉诺夫式的老板们就和一群难以驾驭、直言不讳的普通工人发生了冲突。这部电影是现代制造业的寓言,展示了每个国家的强弱项。对于中国观众来说,影片对他们的缺点的展示直击要害。

“It was hard to watch,” wrote a user on Douban. “Who does not know that Chinese efficiency is driven by depriving workers living at the bottom of society of their health, safety and dignity?” Another comment came from the city of Fuqing, Fuyao’s base, to which American managers are taken to be trained in Chinese factory-floor culture (they are alarmed to see workers crouched on mountains of shards, sorting them for recycling, and bewildered by the militaristic morning roll-calls and 12-hour shifts). “The scariest thing is that we have grown used to this,” wrote the native of Fuqing, pondering whether to feel pride or sorrow at management methods like Fuyao’s.
“看着很难受。”一位豆瓣用户写道。“谁不知道所谓的中国速度是牺牲了社会底层工人的健康、安全和尊严换来的?”另一句评论来自福耀的总部所在地福清,美国的管理人员被带到这里,在中国的工厂文化中接受培训(他们惊恐地看到工人们蹲在堆积如山的碎玻璃上,把它们分类回收,并且被军事化的晨间点名和12小时轮班制搞得晕头转向)。“最可怕的是我们已经渐渐习惯了。”这位福清人写道,思忖着不知道该对福耀这样的管理模式感到自豪还是悲哀。

Young Chinese have begun to resist them. Earlier this year engineers in the cut-throat technology industry led a rare online labour movement to protest against the “996” regime (a de facto work schedule of 9am to 9pm, six days a week, often without extra pay for those extra hours). Last year students and activists joined protests by factory workers at Jasic, a maker of welding machinery in Shenzhen.
中国的年轻人已经开始抵制这些做法。今年早些时候,竞争激烈的科技行业里的工程师们发起了一场罕见的在线劳工运动,抗议“996”工作制(实际工作时间从早上9点到晚上9点,每周工作六天,而这些加班时间通常没有加班费)。去年一些学生和活动人士加入了深圳焊接机械制造商佳士公司的工人抗议活动。

Their gripes were poor working conditions and firings after some had tried to unionise—something that in America Fuyao fought tooth and nail, and successfully, to block. “American Factory” depicts a collision between two working cultures. But worries about the plight of blue-collar workers unite them.
他们抗议的是糟糕的工作条件,以及公司解雇一些试图成立工会的工人。而在美国,福耀竭尽全力,成功阻止了工会的成立。《美国工厂》描述了两种工作文化的碰撞。但对蓝领工人困境的担忧让这两种文化团结起来。

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