纽约时报文摘 | 美国人在抖音海外版TikTok上分享什么?

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Ever seen someone flip a coin with a forklift? Just place the coin on a hard, smooth surface. Lower the tip of the blade onto it, about halfway across the coin, leaving a bit of pressure, and ever so gently rake it back. The edge of the coin will catch, sending it flying up and over, maybe even onto the fork itself. It takes some practice.
你见过有人用叉车抛硬币吗?只要把硬币放在坚硬光滑的表面。把叉片的尖端置于硬币上方大约正中的地方,施加一点压力,然后轻轻压下去。硬币的边缘受力,让它飞起来,翻过去,甚至飞到叉片上。这个得练习一阵子才行。

So does fabricating a piece of salmon with the edge of your hand, instead of more slowly, with a knife — or chopping dozens of perfect slices of cucumber with increasing speed but without looking. Have you ever witnessed the joy of a clean, single-pass flat weld? Or of capping a ruptured water line as it sprays mud all over the place?
用手掌边缘来加工三文鱼,而不是用刀慢慢切;或者眼睛看都不看就用越来越快的速度切出几十片完美的黄瓜片。你可曾体会过一条干净平滑的单道焊缝的喜悦?或者在一条破裂的水管弄得泥浆四溅时把它盖住?

What happens if you pet the sloth you care for at the zoo? Sometimes, it pets you back. Maybe, for no particular reason, you’re curious about what goes into a predeparture check for a Boeing 737 Max? It’s alarming: A robotic voice recites various notifications as screens light up: pull up, wind shear, wind shear, wind shear, terrain, obstacle, obstacle, pull up.
如果你在动物园里抚摸一只心爱的树懒会怎样?有时候,它也会爱抚你。也许,虽然没什么特别的原因,你就是对波音737 Max飞机的起飞前检查很好奇?它让人害怕:随着屏幕亮起,一个机械的声音念出各种事项:拉起、风切变、风切变、风切变、地形、障碍物、障碍物、拉起。

All of this I learned on TikTok, the wildly popular video app that people seem to have a hard time describing. It’s an app with lots of teens, and lots of music, and lots of, well, everything. It’s ruled by mysterious algorithms, which shuttle users around its sprawling platform however they please, for whatever purposes their creators decide. It’s an app that’s unapologetic about wasting your time. It’s also, apparently, a good way to waste some time at work.
所有这些都是我从TikTok里看到的,它是一款广受欢迎的视频应用程序,人们似乎很难描述它。这个应用有很多青少年用户、有很多音乐、还有很多……这个,各种各样的东西。它被神秘的算法所控制,可以让用户随意穿梭于其庞大的平台之间,实现其创造者所决定的任何目的。这款应用不会为浪费你的时间而道歉。显然,它也是在工作时消磨时间的好办法。

TikTok, which encourages users to contribute short videos to hashtags, or to join in on jokes or challenges or to sing along with clips of songs, has, in its manic and frequent demands for content from its users, become an unlikely force for labor visibility.
TikTok鼓励用户为话题标签贡献短视频,或者参与到笑话和挑战当中,或者跟着歌曲片段一起唱歌。由于对用户内容的狂热和频繁要求,TikTok出人意料地成了一股促进劳动可见度的力量。

“The platform can sometimes be a means of relieving yourself from the stress that any job can bring,” said Shaun Douglas Duenas, a TikTok user. Mr. Duenas, a 21-year-old from Guam who currently lives in Houston, has built a sizable following on the app with comedy videos, riffing on popular songs, hashtags and memes. He also occasionally posts from his airline ground-crew job. Once, he shuttled viewers through a 15-second tour of an empty commercial jet ready to be restocked and cleaned, edited to the rhythm of “Sunshine, Lollipops and Rainbows.”
“这个平台有时候可以让你从工作压力中解脱出来,”TikTok用户肖恩·道格拉斯·杜埃尼亚斯(Shaun Douglas Duenas)说。21岁的杜埃尼亚斯来自关岛,现居休斯敦。他在这款应用上发布滑稽视频、跟伴奏演唱流行歌曲的视屏,还有标签和模因,因此积累了大量粉丝。他在航空公司担任地勤人员,偶尔也会发布他在工作时拍摄的视频。有一次,在一段15秒的视频里,伴随着《阳光、棒棒糖和彩虹》(Sunshine, Lollipops and rainbow)的音乐,他带领观众们参观一架空荡荡的、正准备重新归置和清洁的商用飞机。

“People were shocked that I don’t act or do film but work for an airline,” he said.
“人们很惊讶,我既不是演戏的也不是拍电影的,而是在一家航空公司工作,”他说。

While TikTok does have familiar features, like profiles and followers, it relies more heavily than other platforms on algorithmic recommendations and featured songs, categories and hashtags. This makes it easy to browse an enormous catalog of jobs, as represented, briefly, by the people who do them: #scrublife will take you inside hospitals; #cheflife, into kitchens; #forgelife, into the world of superheated steel; #farmlife, to the fields.
TikTok确实有一些人们所熟悉的功能,比如个人简介和粉丝关注,但它比其他平台更依赖于算法推荐、精选歌曲、分类和标签。这使得我们很容易看到很多关于各种职业的内容,由从事这些工作的人们简洁地呈现给你:#scrublife(清洁生活)标签带你进入医院;#cheflife(大厨生活)带你进入厨房;#forgelife(锻造生活)带你进入滚烫的钢铁世界;#farmlife(农场生活)带你来到田野。

There are hashtags for most major retailers and restaurant chains, full of employer-specific gripes, jokes or observations. There are also more generally relatable sketches. Nobody appreciates the customer who shows up a minute before closing. Many videos are shot on break. Some are shot on the way from one job to another. But plenty more are shot in a whisper, between customers or during a lull, mindful of nearby bosses. There are hashtags that are widely applicable to employed people, like #coworkers, #working, #bluecollar and #lovemyjob.
大多数大型零售商和连锁餐厅都有自己的标签,其中充斥着对雇主的抱怨、笑话或评论。也有很多更能让人感同身受的片段。没有人会喜欢关门前一分钟才闯进来的顾客。很多视频都是在休息时间拍摄的。也有些是在上一个打工地点赶到下一个打工地点的路上拍摄的。但是,更多视频是在顾客之间的耳语声中拍摄的,或者是在意识到老板在附近的一片安静中拍摄的。有一些标签普遍适用于在职人士,比如#coworkers(同事)、#working(工作中)、#bluecollar(蓝领)和#lovemyjob(爱我的工作)。

People do share their jobs on any large social platform. But on TikTok, which is relatively new, users are frequently shown content from people they don’t know. Creation is low-stakes and popularity is extremely unpredictable. Feedback is amplified to encourage more creation. Users are incentivized to keep their profiles open to the public if they want to grow.
人们的确会在任何大的社交平台上分享自己的工作。但在相对较新的TikTok上,用户经常能看到不认识的人发的内容。创作风险低,受欢迎度极其不可预见。反馈会被放大以鼓励更多创作。用户被激励要想成长就要公开个人资料。

This cuts two ways. Browsing one of the bigger work-related hashtags might turn up the satisfying surprise of a video of a man separating a piece of salmon from its skin with a single sweeping motion. (Sample comment: “thats one sharp hand u have.”) But its poster — Gary Kinsey, 44, of New York, who describes himself as a traveling model chef (as in modeling and cooking) — was surprised as well. It was his first video on the platform, and it got more than 6,000 likes, far more than it did on Instagram, where most of his posts are carefully shot finished dishes. It was strange and unexpected, he said — but mostly just nice.
这样有弊也有利。浏览更大的工作相关标签,结果可能会是令人满意的惊喜——看到一名男子只一个简单的动作便剥下整张三文鱼皮的视频。(评论实例:“你有一只锋利的手。”)而视频的发布者——44岁、来自纽约的盖里·金赛(Gary Kinsey),自称旅行模特厨师(既当模特烹饪美食)——自己也感到惊讶。那是他在这个平台上发的第一则视频,得到了6000多个赞,远比Instagram上的多。在Instagram上他的贴子主要是精心拍摄的完成的菜品。他说,这很奇怪也很意外——但感觉还挺好的。

TikTok has arrived at a time when mobile devices are far more integrated into our daily lives and in which sharing from one, wherever you are, is a default behavior. It makes sense that for now, at least, it’s a portal to the vastness of American jobs. (Or, a few taps away, the Chinese job, the Indian job, or the Russian job.)
TikTok进入的是一个移动设备已大大融入我们日常生活的时代,无论身处何处,从一台设备上进行分享是默认的行为。至少就目前而言,它是通往海量美国工作的门户。(或者多点几下,就会看到中国、印度或俄罗斯的工作。)

In the long run, social platforms have a tendency to professionalize. You can seek out virtually any line of work on Instagram, but you’ll have to do some looking and get permission to follow; the most visible form of labor on the platform is influence, which isn’t meant to look like labor at all.
从长远来看,社交平台有专业化的倾向。你可以在Instagram上搜到几乎所有领域的工作,但你不得不找寻一番,并获得关注许可;这个平台上最明显的劳动形式就是影响力,虽然它看上去一点儿也不像劳动。

YouTube is now a workplace unto itself. It pays creators according to the size of their audiences, and so while there are vibrant YouTube subcultures adjacent to various jobs, these jobs tend to be obviously fascinating or exclusive. In the long run, the successful YouTuber’s job ends up being YouTube.
YouTube如今本身就是一个工作场所。它根据受众多少向视频作者支付费用,虽然YouTube有许多与各种工作相关的活跃的亚文化,但这些工作往往很吸引人或者很独特。长远来看,成功的YouTube工作最后就是成为YouTube。

But there aren’t many ways to make money on TikTok yet, and as in YouTube and Vine’s early days, it’s not entirely clear to everyone what they’re supposed to be doing there, except, of course, posting. It’s neither purely aspiration nor performative. TikTok’s priorities will make themselves clear over time, should it stick around, and perhaps they will have no need for the break-room vent sessions, or the shot from the paratrooper dangling his legs out of the back of a plane. For now, however, people are filling this new space with what’s right in front of them.
但TikTok上还没有多少赚钱的途径,就像YouTube和Vine早期一样,每个人都还不清楚自己在那上面要做些什么,当然,除了发帖。它既非单纯出于志向也非出于表演。假以时日,TikTok的优先事项会变得清晰起来,如果它坚持下去,或许人们也不再需要休息室的发泄环节,或者伞兵把双腿悬在飞机后部拍摄的镜头。不过现在,人们正在用近在眼前的事物填满这片新的空间。

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