经济学人官方译文 | 私立教育正在新的市场以新的形式兴起

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Private education
私立教育
A class apart
一校一阶层
Private education is booming in new markets and new forms, says Emma Duncan
埃玛·邓肯说,私立教育正在新的市场以新的形式兴起

HOUSED in a jumble of ancient buildings in the shadow of Westminster Abbey, Westminster School has been educating boys since it was founded in 1560 by Queen Elizabeth I to provide lessons for 40 poor scholars. It has evolved since then—its 750 pupils now include some girls, and with fees of £39,252 a year for boarders and £27,174 for day pupils, poor scholars are thin on the ground—but for nearly half a millennium, these historical premises defined its geographical limits.
西敏公学(Westminster School)坐落于西敏寺旁的一群古建筑中。它由女王伊丽莎白一世于1560年创办,来为40名贫困的学生授课。在很长一段时间里它是一所男校,但也经历了演变。现在它的750名学生中也有一些女孩;鉴于寄宿生的费用为每年39,252英镑,走读生为27,174英镑,贫困生已经寥寥无几。不过,近500年来,它的历史渊源决定了它在地理上的局限性。

That is about to change. A ground-breaking ceremony on April 9th marked the start of the construction of Westminster Chengdu, the first stage in a venture with a local partner, Hong Kong Melodious Education Technology Group. The school is due to open in September 2020 and will have 2,500 pupils from the ages of 3 to 18. It will be followed by a further five establishments of a similar size in other Chinese cities over the next ten years, by the end of which Westminster will be educating 20 times as many children in China as in the heart of London.
而这一点即将改变。4月9日举办的一个奠基仪式标志着成都西敏分校动工。这是与地方合作伙伴香港斯为美教育科技集团(Hong Kong Melodious Education Technology Group)的合资项目的第一阶段。该校将于明年9月开学,招收2500名3至18岁学生。未来十年,中国其他城市将再增开五所类似规模的分校,令西敏在中国的学生数量达到伦敦市中心的20倍。

A slice of the Chinese operation’s income will flow back to the mother ship, enabling Westminster to increase the share of pupils on bursaries in Britain from around 5% to 20%. “It will give us a revenue stream that will allow us to go back to our roots,” says Rodney Harris, deputy headmaster in London, who is moving to Chengdu in September to take the top job there. By extending its model to China, the school thus hopes to mitigate the inequality to which it contributes in Britain.
中国业务的一部分收入将回流本部,使西敏能将领取助学金的英国学生比例从5%左右提高到20%。伦敦的副校长罗德尼·哈里斯(Rodney Harris)说:“它将给我们带来收入流,让我们能回归自己的根基。”他将于9月搬到成都,担任当地的一把手。由此可见,通过将自己的模式扩展至中国,西敏希望能减轻它在英国助长的不平等。

Education used to be provided by entrepreneurs and religious organisations, but starting in Prussia in the 18th century, governments began to take over. In more recent years the state has dominated education in the rich world, with the private sector restricted to the elite and the pious. In the developing world, too, new states created from crumbling empires were keen to provide (and control) education, both to respond to their people’s ambitions and to shape the minds of the next generation.
教育曾由企业家和宗教组织提供,但自18世纪的普鲁士开始,政府开始接手。再到后来,富裕国家的教育由政府主导,私立教育仅限于精英阶层和教徒。在发展中国家,从崩溃的帝国废墟中建立的新政府也热衷于提供(以及控制)教育,这既是为响应民众的抱负,也是为控制下一代人的思想。

But now the private sector is enjoying a resurgence. Enrolment in private schools has risen globally over the past 15 years, from 10-17% at primary level and from 19-27% at secondary level; the increases are happening not so much in the rich world as in low- and middle-income countries. People are pouring money into schooling, tuition and higher education (see chart).
但现在私立教育正在复兴。过去15年里,私校的入学人数在全球范围内上升,在小学生中的占比从10%升至17%,在中学生中从19%升至27%。中低收入国家的增长超过富裕国家。人们正在向学校教育、学费和高等教育投入大量资金(见图表)。

经济学人官方译文 | 私立教育正在新的市场以新的形式兴起

Four factors are driving the increase. First, incomes are rising, especially among the better-off. Since birth rates are falling, the amount of money available for each child is rising even faster than incomes. In China the one-child policy has meant that in many families six people (four grandparents and two parents) are prepared to invest in the education of a single child.
四个因素在推动这一增长。首先,收入在上升,尤其是富裕阶层。而出生率的下跌使得每个孩子可享用的资金的增速甚至超过收入增速。在中国,独生子女政策意味着在许多家庭中,有六个人(祖父母四人加父母二人)都准备投资于一个孩子的教育。

Second, thanks to the relative decline and increasing capital intensity of manufacturing, job opportunities for the less well-educated are shrinking. Even good factory jobs require qualifications. The returns to education have risen despite the rise in the supply of well-educated people. In developing countries, which have fewer of them, the returns are higher than in the rich world, making it even more important for young people there to go to school.
其次,由于制造业相对衰退且趋向资本密集型,教育程度较低的人就业机会在缩减。好的工厂职位也需要学历。尽管受过良好教育的人力的供应增加,教育的回报仍然上升了。在发展中国家,受过良好教育的人相对更少,教育的回报比在富裕国家更高,这使得求学对于那里的年轻人愈发重要。

Third, the output of education also provides some of the input: the more children that are educated, the more teachers will be available to bring on the next lot. This is especially true in countries in which job opportunities for women are limited: lots of educated women translate into a ready supply of cheap teachers.
第三,教育的产出也为其自身提供了一些投入:受教育的孩子越多,能够教育下一批孩子的教师人数就越多。在女性就业机会有限的国家尤其如此——许多受过教育的女性成为了廉价教师的现成来源。

Fourth, technology is creating a demand for new skills which the private sector seems better at providing. It is also opening up new markets as the internet enables people to get educated in different ways and at different times in their lives.
第四,技术正在创造对新技能的需求,而私立教育似乎更擅长培养这些新技能。技术也在开辟新市场,因为互联网使得人们能以不同的方式在人生的不同阶段接受教育。

The dividing line between private and public is often unclear—many countries have government schools that are partly privately financed, for instance, and private schools that are publicly financed—and the size and growth of the private sector varies from country to country. Broadly, the more developed the country, the smaller the private sector’s role tends to be. In Haiti about 80% of primary-school pupils are being educated privately; in Germany, just 5%. In mainland Europe, the quality of state education is generally high, so the private sector tends to play a smallish role—though there are wrinkles. For example, a history of religious divisions in the Netherlands has meant that three-quarters of pupils go to private schools, the great majority of them publicly financed; in Sweden, 10% do. In America and Britain the quality of government schools is variable, which explains sizeable elite private sectors and a growing number of privately managed, publicly funded schools—“charters” in America, “academies” in Britain. In the tertiary sector, private institutions have a big role in America, both at the top and the bottom of the market; in Britain, the tertiary sector is now largely privately financed.
私立和公立之间的分野往往并不清晰,比如许多国家都有部分由私人融资的公立学校,以及部分受公费资助的私立学校。此外,私立教育的规模和扩张速度因国家而异。大体上,国家越发达,私立教育的势力往往越小。在海地,大约80%的小学生接受私立教育,而在德国只有5%。在欧洲大陆,国家提供的教育质量普遍较高,因此私立教育往往只扮演较小的角色——虽然也不尽如此。比如,荷兰宗教分裂的历史导致该国四分之三的学生进入私立学校,但其中绝大多数学校受公费资助。而在瑞典,这样的学生比例为10%。在美国和英国,公立学校的质量参差不齐,因而出现了相当规模的精英私校和越来越多由私人管理、但受公费资助的学校——在美国叫“特许学校”(charters),在英国叫“学院”(academies)。在高等教育这一块,私营机构在美国发挥着重大作用,无论是在市场的顶端还是底部;在英国则主要为私人融资。

In Latin America the Catholic church’s big role in schooling, the low quality of state provision and the rapid growth in demand for tertiary education have all contributed to a big role for the private sector. In much of South Asia and Africa, poverty, migration and population growth make it hard for governments to provide schooling in many cities, so the private sector is big, and growing fast. The elites have already left the public systems, and many middle-class and poorer people are following.
在拉丁美洲,天主教会在学校教育中扮演重要角色,而政府提供的教育质量低下,对高等教育的需求又快速增长,这一切都促成了私立教育发挥重要作用。在南亚和非洲的大部分地区,贫困、迁移和人口增长使得政府在许多城市难以提供学校教育,因此私立教育规模庞大且扩张迅速。精英阶层已经撤离了公立系统,众多中产阶级和更穷困的人群也在追随他们的脚步。

经济学人官方译文 | 私立教育正在新的市场以新的形式兴起

Like Europe, East Asia has generous and mostly good state provision, but unlike Europe it also has a fast-growing private sector. Vietnam has both the best state-school system in a low-income country and probably the world’s fastest-growing private-school sector. The market capitalisation of Chinese education companies, bigger than those of any other country, suggests that investors see it as a golden opportunity.
东亚和欧洲一样,拥有慷慨且大体上优质的公立教育,但与欧洲不同的是,这里的私立教育也在快速增长。越南拥有低收入国家中最好的公校系统,但它的私校系统却也可能是全世界扩张最快的。中国教育类企业的市值比任何其他国家的这类企业都大,表明投资者视之为一个千载难逢的好机会。

The Chinese state is clamping down on the private sector’s role between the ages of 6 and 16, but there is still room for growth. If the child goes to a private nursery and a private university, and receives two hours of private tuition on each school day and eight at the weekends, with a summer maths camp thrown in—a fairly standard routine for a child of Chinese professionals—he or she will spend as much time in the private as in the state sector.
中国政府正在压制私立机构在6至16岁教育中的角色,但它仍有增长空间。如果孩子上私立幼儿园和民办大学,接受上学日每天两小时、周末每天八小时的私人补习,再参加个数学夏令营——一套中国专业人士子女的“标配”,那么这个孩子在私立和公立系统中花费的时间将是一样多的。

All of this makes education attractive to investors, says Ashwin Assomull of L.E.K. Consulting. Demand is growing faster than incomes and holds up well in economic downturns. Technology is creating new markets. Schooling is fragmented, but there are large and growing chains, such as GEMS Education, a Dubai-based company with 47 schools mostly in the Middle East; Cognita, a British company with 73 schools in eight countries; and Beaconhouse School Systems, a Pakistani company with 200 schools in seven countries.
所有这些都使得教育产业对投资者充满吸引力,艾意凯咨询(L.E.K. Consulting)的阿斯温·阿索米尔(Ashwin Assomull)表示。需求的增长快于收入增长,且在经济低迷期仍保持强劲。技术正在创造新市场。教育市场十分分散,但也出现了不断扩张的大型连锁店,比如总部位于迪拜的环球教育集团(GEMS Education)拥有47所学校,大部分位于中东地区;英国公司Cognita在八个国家拥有73所学校;巴基斯坦的Beaconhouse学校系统在七个国家设有200所学校。

The main downside is the sector’s political sensitivity. Private investment in education makes governments uncomfortable because it pits a private good against a social one. Governments, like parents, want children to learn, but they also want to maximise social mobility and minimise inequality, whereas parents simply want to ensure that their children do better than anyone else’s.
私立教育的一大劣势是政治敏感性。对教育的民间投资令政府感到不安,因为它使私营产品与社会公共产品相抗衡。政府和父母一样希望孩子们受教育,但它们同时也希望社会流动性能最大化而不平等能最小化,而父母只想确保自家孩子比其他人的孩子境遇更好。

These objectives inevitably conflict, so governments regulate and restrict the private sector, controlling what is taught, banning profits, outlawing selection, cutting fees and generally making the business unattractive to investors. Yet they need it, too, so they work with it, channelling its skills, inventiveness and capital and pouring taxpayers’ money into it.
这样的目标不可避免地相互冲突,致使政府对私立教育实施管制和限制,控制其教授的内容,禁止牟利及筛选生源,削减费用,从总体上消除这个行业对投资者的吸引力。但政府又需要私立教育,因而也与之合作,引导其技能、创造力和资本,并将纳税人的钱注入其中。

This special report will consider what the private sector is providing that the state is not, and look at the costs and benefits of its growth. It will examine how well it is performing, and conclude by asking how the private sector and the state can work together to best effect.
本专题报告将探讨私立教育正在提供哪些国家无法提供的事物,并分析其扩张的成本和效益。它将审视私立教育的表现,最后回答这样一个问题:私立和公立系统如何能够联手以取得最佳成效。

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