纽约时报文摘 | TikTok在印度遭禁,被指传播色情

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MUMBAI, India — TikTok, the Chinese video app whose growth has been as viral as one of its lip-synced dance clips, has encountered a roadblock in India.
印度孟买——TikTok(海外版抖音——译注)的成长速度就像它上面某个爆红的对口型跳舞视频一样,现在这款来自中国的视频应用在印度遇阻。

Google and Apple removed TikTok from their app stores in India late Tuesday after the country’s Supreme Court refused to block a lower court order halting new downloads. The lower court, based in Tamil Nadu State, is hearing a petition seeking a ban on the app, on the grounds that it spreads pornography and threatens the well-being of children.
在印度下级法院发出停止下载TikTok的命令后,该国最高法院拒绝阻止该命令,谷歌和苹果已于周二晚些时候将TikTok从它们在印度的应用商店下架。泰米尔纳德邦的下级法院正在就寻求禁止这款应用的请愿书举行听证,理由是它散播色情信息,危害儿童健康。

TikTok, which has 120 million users in India and more than half a billion worldwide, has been particularly popular with children and young adults because its tools make it easy to record, share and watch short videos.
TikTok在印度拥有1.2亿用户,全球用户超过5亿。由于它的各种工具使录制、分享和观看短视频变得更容易,所以特别受儿童和年轻人的欢迎

But it has also come under increasing scrutiny from governments around the world, including the United States, for allowing users to post objectionable content and for pushing children to share too much information with strangers.
但由于允许用户发布不当内容,且促使儿童与陌生人分享过多信息,TikTok也受到了包括美国在内的世界各国政府日益严厉的审查。

In India, the app has been caught up in a bigger debate over the inability of social media to stop the spread of false information, the dangers to children posed by mobile technology and the vast influence of American and Chinese technology giants.
由于社交媒体无法阻止虚假信息的传播,移动技术给儿童带来的危险,以及美国和中国科技巨头的巨大影响,该应用在印度陷入了一场更大的争议中。

The Indian court hearing the TikTok case issued a rambling order this month reciting the petitioner’s claims that TikTok was filled with pornography, exposed young people to sexual predators, spoiled the mind and prompted people to commit suicide.
举行TikTok听证的印度法院本月签发了一项东拉西扯的法令,详述了请愿者要求,称TikTok充斥着色情内容,将年轻人暴露于性侵者的风险之中,会腐蚀心灵,促使人去自杀。

“The government has the social responsibility to prevent these kinds of applications,” the two-judge panel wrote as it ordered an interim ban on downloads of the app. The court issued its initial order without giving TikTok a chance to respond to the allegations.
“政府负有阻止这类应用的社会责任,”由两名法官组成的专门小组在该应用下载的临时禁令中写道。该法院在未给TikTok机会回应指控的情况下发布了初步命令。

“We have faith in the Indian judicial system,” TikTok said in a statement on Wednesday. The company noted that it had stepped up its efforts to remove objectionable content and had already taken down six million videos in India.
“我们相信印度的司法系统,”TikTok在周三的声明中称。该公司指出,其已加大了删除不当内容的努力,并在印度已撤下600万条视频。

TikTok’s lax controls have also incurred the wrath of American regulators. In February, the Federal Trade Commission announced a $5.7 million settlement with TikTok over accusations that it obtained and shared personal information such as names and photos from children under 13 without parental consent.
TikTok管控上的松懈也招致了美国监管机构的愤怒。今年2月,联邦贸易委员会(Federal Trade Commission)宣布与TikTok达成570万美元的和解。此前,TikTok被控在未征得父母同意的情况下,从13岁以下儿童手中收集和分享姓名和照片等个人信息。

Internet companies in the United States are supposed to seek such consent before allowing children to use their services, but India has no such regulations. That has left communities struggling to cope with technology’s influence on their children.
在美国,互联网企业在允许儿童使用其服务前要先征得父母同意,但印度没有这类规定。这已导致众多社区很难应对科技对儿童的影响。

Last month, several cities and districts in Gujarat, the home state of India’s prime minister, Narendra Modi, banned PUBG, another app popular with young people. Officials argued that the game, a mobile multiplayer shooter owned by the Chinese conglomerate Tencent, distracted children from their studies. About 20 people, many of them students, have been charged with violating the ban, according to local news reports.
上个月,印度总理纳伦德拉·莫迪(Narendra Modi)的家乡古吉拉特邦的几座城市和地区禁止了深受年轻人欢迎的另外一款应用《绝地求生》(PUBG)。官员认为,这款由中国企业集团腾讯拥有的多玩家射击手游会分散孩子们的学习注意力。根据当地新闻报道,已有20人被控违反了这项禁令,其中大多为学生。

More broadly, India’s central government is wrestling with an overhaul of its rules governing online services. It is considering requiring tech companies to automatically censor a wide range of content and other policies that would promote Indian firms and rein in foreign tech companies.
更广泛地说,印度中央政府正全力以赴,对其在线服务管理规则进行全面改革。它正在考虑要求科技企业对一系列广泛内容进行自动审查,以及其他促进印度企业发展、控制外国科技企业的政策。

TikTok, which is owned by Bytedance, a company based in Beijing, has come under additional scrutiny in India because of its national origin. Some Indian officials suspect that China’s government is using popular Chinese apps to scoop up private data on Indians.
TikTok属于总部位于北京的字节跳动(Bytedance)公司,因此在印度遭到了额外审查。一些印度官员怀疑,中国政府正在利用这些热门中国应用采集印度公民的私人信息。

“There is a belief that Chinese apps are a threat to national security,” said Salman Waris, an expert in international technology law at TechLegis in New Delhi.
“有一种看法认为,中国的应用对国家安全构成威胁,”新德里律所TechLegis的国际技术法专家萨尔曼·瓦里斯(Salman Waris)说。

But India and the United States are not the only countries concerned about the app. Bangladesh banned it two months ago as part of a crackdown on pornography. Indonesia prohibited it last July, citing objectionable content, but restored access a week later.
但对此应用表示担忧的国家并不只是印度和美国。孟加拉国两个月前在打击色情信息行动中也将其禁止。印度尼西亚去年7月曾禁止该网站,指出存在令人反感的内容,但一周后又恢复了访问。

Mr. Waris said that restricting an app like TikTok over content it couldn’t control was a slippery slope. Other major internet platforms like Facebook, WhatsApp and Google’s YouTube struggle with the same issue and could theoretically face similar bans.
瓦里斯称,因TikTok无法控制的内容而将其予以限制是一个最终会导致失败的做法。诸如Facebook、WhatsApp和谷歌的YouTube这类主要网络平台也面临着同样的问题,理论上也可能面临类似的禁令。

The Internet Freedom Foundation, a digital rights group in New Delhi, wrote to India’s technology ministry on Wednesday, denouncing the blanket bans as “reactionary and disproportionate” and saying they violated Indians’ right to free speech. However, the group also urged the government to begin a public process to create a formal technology policy to protect children.
新德里的数字权利组织互联网自由基金会(Internet Freedom Foundation)周三致信印度科技部,谴责全面禁止“过于保守和反应过大”,称其违反了印度的言论自由权利。不过该组织也敦促政府启动公共程序,创建一个正式的技术政策来保护儿童。

Meanwhile, the hashtag #TikTokban was a trending topic on Twitter for much of Wednesday. Fans and detractors weighed in with memes, jokes and TikTok videos to mourn its suspension or celebrate it.
与此同时,截止周三白天大部分时间,#TikTokban(TikTok禁令)的标签一直是推特上的热门话题。粉丝和批评者通过各种米姆、玩笑和TikTok视频加入了辩论,对它的停用表示痛惜或欢喜。

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