纽约时报文摘 | 迷恋亚裔女性,极右翼白人至上者的“黄热病”

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The white supremacists on the far right have “yellow fever” — an Asian woman fetish. It’s a confusing mix.
极右翼白人至上主义者有“黄热病”:迷恋亚裔女性。这是一种令人困惑的混搭。

Andrew Anglin, the founder of the neo-Nazi website The Daily Stormer, once posted a video of himself with a Filipina he called “my jailbait girlfriend,” the young couple flirting as they sauntered through a megamall in the Philippines. Richard Spencer, a white nationalist, has dated a series of Asian-American women, according to one of his ex-girlfriends. (Mr. Spencer insists that it was before he embraced white nationalism.)
新纳粹网站“每日风暴”(The Daily Stormer)的创始人安德鲁·安格林(Andrew Anglin)曾经上传过一段他和一个被他称作“我的祸水妞(指如果与之发生性关系即构成强奸罪的未成年女子。——译注)女友”的菲律宾人在一起的视频。这对年轻情侣在菲律宾某大型购物中心一边闲逛一边调情。白人民族主义者理查德·斯宾塞(Richard Spencer)的一位前女友透露,他和一系列亚裔美国女性约会过。(斯宾塞坚称那是在他接受白人民族主义之前。)

The right-wing agitator Mike Cernovich, the writer John Derbyshire and an alt-right figure named Kyle Chapman (so notorious for swinging a lead-filled stick at Trump opponents at a protest in Berkeley, Calif., that he is now a meme) are all married to women of Asian descent. As a commenter wrote on an alt-right forum, “exclusively” dating Asian women is practically a “white-nationalist rite of passage.”
右翼鼓吹者迈克·切尔诺维奇(Mike Cernovich)、作家约翰·德比希尔(John Derbyshire)和极右翼分子凯尔·查普曼(Kyle Chapman,因为在加州伯克利的一场抗议活动中挥舞一根注铅的棍子殴打特朗普反对者而声名远扬,以至现在成了一种米姆)都娶了有亚洲血统的女子。正如一名评论者在一个极右翼论坛上所写的那样,“只”和亚裔女性约会几乎是一种“白人民族主义成年礼”。

In November 2016, a photo of Tila Tequila giving a Nazi salutewent viral. Ms. Tequila is the Vietnamese-American star of the short-lived MTV reality show “A Shot at Love With Tila Tequila,” and she was saluting at a dinner the night before the conference of Richard Spencer’s white-supremacist think tank, the National Policy Institute. At the conference, Mr. Spencer had reminded attendees that America was a “white country designed for ourselves and our posterity.”
2016年11月,一张蒂拉·特奎拉(Tila Tequila)行纳粹礼的照片在网上疯传。特奎拉是存在时间短暂的MTV真人秀《爱上蒂拉·特奎拉》(A Shot at Love With Tila Tequila)中的一名越南裔美国女星。行纳粹礼时,她正在参加理查德·斯宾塞所在的白人至上主义智库全国政策研究所(National Policy Institute)在会议前夕的晚宴。斯宾塞在第二天的会议上提醒参会者,美国是一个“为我们自己和子孙后代设计的白人国家”。

纽约时报文摘 | 迷恋亚裔女性,极右翼白人至上者的“黄热病”

Maybe it makes sense that the alt-right is so confused: On a neo-Nazi news site, a user asked advice on whether he could be a white nationalist if he slept with East Asian women, and he received dozens of spirited responses from both sides. But the white-supremacist Asian fetish is no contradiction.
极右翼有如此的迷乱也许是有道理的:在一个新纳粹新闻网站上,一名用户问能不能既和东亚女性发生关系,又做一个白人民族主义者。他收到了双方数十条斗志昂扬的回复。但白人至上主义者迷恋亚裔这一点并不矛盾。

It exists at the intersection of two popular racial myths. First is the idea of the “model minority,” in which Asian-Americans are painted as all hard-working, high-achieving and sufficiently well-behaved to assimilate. If Asians are the model minority — if that is how nonwhites can find acceptance in white America — then perhaps that opens the door to acceptance from white supremacists.
它处在两种普遍存在的种族迷思的交叉点上。第一种是“模范少数族裔”观念。在这种观念中,亚裔美国人被说成都勤奋、事业有成、品行足够端正,可以同化。如果亚裔是模范少数族裔——如果这是非白人在白人占多数的美国获得认可的方式——那么这也许会为受到白人至上主义者的认可开启了大门。

The second myth is that of the subservient, hypersexual Asian woman. The white-supremacist fetish combines those ideas and highlights a tension within the project of white supremacism as America grows more diverse — a reality that white nationalists condemn as “white genocide.” The new, ugly truth? Maintaining white power may require some compromises on white purity.
第二种是亚裔女性百依百顺、性欲强的观念。这种白人至上主义者迷恋把两种观念结合起来,并在美国变得更加多元——白人民族主义者把这种现状称作“白人种族灭绝”——的过程中,强调白人至上主义事业内部的紧张关系。新的、丑陋的真相是什么?保持白人的权力可能需要在白人血统的纯正性上做出一些让步。

Was Tila Tequila at that white supremacist dinner just attempting, in some twisted way, to assimilate? Or to rebel against what was expected of her? I cringe at her antics, at her trying to be just one of the white-supremacist bros.
在那场白人至上主义晚宴上,蒂拉·特奎拉只是想用某种扭曲的方式融入其中,还是对他人预想的一种叛逆?我为她的滑稽举止、为她试图成为白人至上主义兄弟中的一员感到难堪。

But the photo also conjured up my memories of being a 14-year-old Asian girl in an overwhelmingly white school who wanted to be interesting, self-possessed and liked. Instinctively, I knew it meant distancing myself from the other Asian kids, especially the nerdy and studious ones. I knew I had succeeded when a friend remarked that I wasn’t really Asian, I was white, “because you’re cool.”
不过,这张照片也勾起了我的回忆:14岁时,我在一所以白人为主的学校读书,我想成为一个有趣、镇定、招人喜欢的亚洲女孩。我本能地知道,那意味着我要疏远其他亚洲孩子,尤其是那些勤奋好学的书呆子。我知道我成功了,因为一个朋友说我不是亚洲人,说我是白人,“因为你很酷”。

As I skipped classes to smoke in the courtyard, read Baudelaire to seem the “interesting” kind of smart and attempted to distance myself from the stereotypes, I didn’t know that the idea I wanted to run from — of Asians as civilized, advanced and highly intelligent — had roots in white supremacy. But between the white supremacist Chris Cantwell’s tattoo of a Japanese character and the Charleston shooter Dylann Roof’s speculations that Asians “could be great allies of the white race,” there are echoes of history’s most infamous white nationalist.
我翘课去校园里抽烟,读波德莱尔(Baudelaire)的书,好让自己显得“有趣”又聪明,努力让自己有别于刻板印象,但当时我不知道我想逃避的成见——亚洲人文明、进步、高智商——植根于白人至上主义。但是,在白人至上主义者克里斯·坎特韦尔(Chris Cantwell)的日本人物纹身和查尔斯顿枪击者迪伦·鲁夫(Dylann Roof)关于亚洲人“可能是白人种族的伟大盟友”的论调之间,回响着历史上最为臭名昭著的白人种族主义者的声音。

“I have never regarded the Chinese or the Japanese as being inferior to ourselves,” Adolf Hitler said in 1945. “They belong to ancient civilizations, and I admit freely that their past history is superior to our own.”
“我从来不认为中国人或日本人比我们低级,”阿道夫·希特勒(Adolf Hitler)在1945年说。“他们属于古代文明,我可以坦然承认,他们过去的历史优于我们的历史。”

In the United States, the model-minority myth grew from Asian-Americans’ mid-20th-century efforts to win civil rights, as the scholar Ellen D. Wu recounts in “The Color of Success.” Previously, Asian-Americans, many with humble roots in rural China, were considered degenerate, subject to lynchings, and forced to live in segregated neighborhoods and attend segregated schools under a regime of discriminatory laws and practices she has called a “cousin to Jim Crow.”
在美国,模范少数族裔迷思源自亚裔美国人在20世纪中叶争取民权的努力——正如学者艾伦·D·吴(Ellen D. Wu)在《成功的色彩》(The Color of Success)一书中描述的那样。之前,亚裔美国人大多来自中国农村,出身卑微,被认为是落后的,可以动用私刑惩罚,他们只能在实行种族隔离的社区居住,在实行种族隔离的学校就读,生活在充满歧视性法律和习俗的体制中,吴称这种体制是“吉姆·克劳法(Jim Crow)的表亲”。

But, according to Professor Wu’s research, Chinese-Americans promoted themselves as hard-working, obedient, family-oriented and able to easily assimilate into American life — traits that are not uncommon in poor immigrant communities, where many have made enormous sacrifices to move to a foreign place.
不过,根据吴教授的研究,华裔美国人塑造了努力工作、顺从、以家庭为中心、易于融入美国社会的形象——这些特点在贫穷的移民社区并不少见,那里的许多人为了能够去往外国而做出了巨大牺牲。

By the height of the civil rights movement, America was already giving preferential treatment to educated, professional Asian immigrants, reinforcing the idea of Asians as pliable and studious. White politicians co-opted the myth, pointing to Asian-Americans as proof that the right kind of minority group could achieve the American dream.
在民权运动的鼎盛时期,美国已经开始给予受过良好教育、具有专业技能的亚洲移民优惠待遇,强化了亚洲人顺从、勤奋的观念。白人政治人士借用这个神话,将亚裔美国人作为合适的少数族裔群体能够实现美国梦的证明。

Professor Wu found that just months before the release of the 1965 Moynihan Report, the widely influential policy paper that attributed black poverty to a degenerate black culture, its author, Daniel Patrick Moynihan, spoke at a gathering of intellectuals and policymakers about how Japanese- and Chinese-Americans, considered “colored” just 25 years earlier, were “rather astonishing.” “Am I wrong that they have ceased to be colored?” he asked.
吴教授发现,就在1965年莫伊尼汉报告(Moynihan Report)发布前几个月——这份具有广泛影响力的政策文件将黑人的贫穷归因于落后的黑人文化——它的作者丹尼尔·帕特里克·莫伊尼汉(Daniel Patrick Moynihan)在一个知识分子和政策制定者的集会上表示,日裔和华裔美国人仅在25年前仍被认为是“有色人种”,现在却有了“相当惊人的表现”。“他们不再是有色人种了,我这么说有问题吗?”他问道。

In reality, Asians are rarely considered white, and the model-minority myth obscures the vast differences among Asian-Americans. What’s more, the myth helped to strengthen America’s white liberal order, which claims to uphold diversity while also being anti-black. It legitimizes white America’s power to determine who is “good” and to offer basic dignity and equal rights.
事实上,亚洲人很少被视为白人,模范少数族裔迷思掩盖了亚裔美国人之间的巨大差异。更重要的是,这个迷思有助于强化美国的白人自由主义秩序,它声称维护多样性,却歧视黑人。它使美国白人有权决定谁是“好人”,可以给予基本的尊严和平等权利。

The model-minority myth exists alongside another dangerous and limiting idea — one that is consistent with the alt-right’s misogyny and core anti-feminist values. The main problem with white women, as many alt-right Asian fetishists have noted, is they’ve become too feminist. By contrast, Asian women are seen as naturally inclined to serve men sexually and are also thought of as slim, light-skinned and small, in adherence to Western norms of femininity.
与这种模范少数族裔迷思并存的,是另一种充满局限性的危险观念,这种观念同右翼的女性歧视和反女权主义核心价值观一致。正如很多另类右翼亚洲迷恋者指出的,白人女性的主要问题在于她们太过女权主义了。相比之下,亚裔女性被认为天生习惯于为男性提供性服务,她们纤细、苍白、娇小,符合西方的女性气质标准。

These stereotypes have roots in America’s postwar military incursions into Asia. In Japan, a network of brothelspermitted by American officials opened as United States troops began arriving in August 1945. The brothels employed tens of thousands of women until Gen. Douglas MacArthur declared them off limits in 1946.
这些刻板印象源自美国战后对亚洲的军事入侵。1945年8月,美军开始抵达日本时,美国官员批准开设了一大批妓院。这些妓院雇佣了数万名女性,直到1946年被道格拉斯·麦克阿瑟将军(Douglas MacArthur)宣布关停。

In South Korea, an estimated 300,000 women were working in the sex trade by 1958 (after the end of the Korean War), with more than half employed in the “camptowns” around the American bases. Vietnam’s sex industry, centered largely on American bars, thrived during the Vietnam War. And the stereotype of docile Asian women persists. Nowhere is this more explicit than in sex ads and online pornography.
1958年(朝鲜战争结束后),韩国约有30万名女性从事性交易,其中半数以上在美军基地周围的“营区”工作。越南的性产业主要集中在美国人开的酒吧,在越南战争期间蓬勃发展。亚洲女性格外温顺的刻板形象现在依然存在,在色情广告和网络色情中最为露骨。

Tila Tequila — Playboy model, reality show star, aspiring rapper and one of a handful of female Asian-American celebrities — is often seen through this trope. Does she resent being typecast as the hot, horny Asian as much as I resented being seen as a “model minority”?
蒂拉·特奎拉是《花花公子》杂志(Playboy)的模特、真人秀明星、有抱负的说唱歌手,也是罕见的亚裔美国女性名人,她也经常被人透过这个视角看待。她是否讨厌被模式化为性感放荡的亚洲人,就像我讨厌被视为“模范少数族裔”一样?

Yet after I was called “white” at age 14, it felt, paradoxically, like a compliment to be nicknamed Geisha Girl by another friend, a well-meaning gay white boy. This was not because I was delicate. But the nickname became our inside joke, and it symbolized the kind of femininity that attracted the boys I liked, but that I have never really possessed. Being in on the joke meant I was accepted. Since then, I have acted out in all manner of ways to dispel the “model minority” image. Still, I have never fully extinguished the belief that racking up an impressive lineup of achievements is the only way to gain respect.
在我14岁被称为“白人”后,另一位朋友——一位善意的白人同性恋男生——管我叫“艺妓女孩”,矛盾的是,这个绰号听上去有点像赞美。那不是因为我很优雅。不过,这个绰号成了我们小圈子里的笑料,它象征着那种女性气质,能够吸引那些我喜欢的男孩们,但我从来没有真正拥有过那种气质。被人开玩笑意味着我被接纳了。从那时起,我用尽各种办法,消除“模范少数族裔”的形象。不过,我从未彻底放弃这种信念:取得各种令人印象深刻的成就是获得尊重的唯一途径。

The stereotypes that feed the Asian-woman fetish are not exclusive to the far right. They exist across the political spectrum and infect every aspect of life — not just the bedroom — and manifest themselves in figures as distant from America as the blond-haired, blue-eyed heroes and hypersexualized heroines of Japanese anime.
满足亚裔女性迷恋者们的刻板印象并不是极右翼特有的想法。它存在于各个政治派别中,影响着人们生活的方方面面——不仅是在卧室里——而且还体现在各种人物身上,就连在遥远的日本动漫里,也充斥着金发碧眼的男英雄和超级性感的女英雄。

This fun-house mirror asks me to be smarter, nicer, prettier and more accomplished than my white counterparts for the same amount of respect, then floods my dating app inbox with messages that reek of Asian fetish. Thankfully, I’m not required to care or let it define me; for what it’s worth, I am even entitled to play up the stereotypes if I see something to be gained. Maybe this is where the Asian girlfriends of alt-right men stand. But none of us can escape the truth that the fun-house was built to justify systematic exploitation of everyone in this country who isn’t white. That’s important context. Otherwise, Richard Spencer’s comments could almost sound nice.
这个哈哈镜要求我必须更聪明、更友好、更漂亮,比我的白人同事更有成就,这样才能获得同样的尊重,它还往我的约会应用程序收件箱里塞满亚洲迷恋者的恶心信息。值得庆幸的是,我不需要在乎它,或者让它来定义我;它的价值在于,如果我发现通过它可以获得一些东西,我甚至有权利夸大这些刻板印象。也许这就是那些另类右翼男性的亚洲女友们的立场。不过,我们谁也无法逃避这个事实,那就是,这个哈哈镜是为了支持对这个国家所有非白人的系统性剥削。这是非常重要的语境。否则,理查德·斯宾塞的言论听起来几乎是友好的。

“There is something about the Asian girls,” he once said to Mother Jones. “They are cute. They are smart. They have a kind of thing going on.”
“亚洲女孩很特别,”他在接受《琼斯母亲》杂志(Mother Jones)采访时说。“她们很可爱。很聪明。她们身上有一种魅力。”

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