中华思想文化术语 | “体”英语怎么说?

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Ti

“体”作为文艺学、美学范畴,主要含义有三:其一,指文学艺术的某一门类、流派、体式、作品区别于其他文学艺术门类、流派、体式、作品的整体特征。它是包含了文学艺术的体式、内容、语言、风格等诸要素在内所呈现出的总体形态与艺术特征。其二,指文学艺术作品的风格,不包括体式、形式等方面的内容。其三,指文学作品的基本样式,即文体或文学体制。历代文论家对文体的分类不尽相同,比如南朝萧统《文选》将文体分为38 种。中国古代文学的文体丰富多样,各有自己的基本样式与写作要求,而风格即是作者的艺术个性在作品中的显现,有时也表现为一
Ti (体) has three different meanings in the study of literature, art, and aesthetics. First, it refers to features that distinguish one particular category, form, or literary school from others. These features represent the overall form and artistic characteristics, including the structure, content, language, style, and other essential elements. Second, it refers only to literary and artistic style, not their form or shape. Third, it refers to the basic literary and artistic form, i.e., the writing style and literary genre. Scholars of literary theory in different historical periods did not use the same standards to classify literary styles. For example, Xiao Tong of the Southern Dynasties classified literary and artistic works into 38 styles or categories in his Literary Anthology. There is a wide range of writing styles and literary genres in classical Chinese literature, each with its own style and writing requirements. The style of a literary work reflects the author’s individual artistic temperament, and, sometimes, also the literary and artistic trend in a particular era. This term is often used together with the name of a person or a dynasty to describe literary and artistic features peculiar to a school of literature. Examples are the Sao Style (represented by the famous poem, Li Sao, written by renowned poet Qu Yuan), Tao Style (represented by poet Tao Yuanming), and Jian’an Style (named after the period of Jian’an during the Han Dynasty). The term is widely used in literary criticism and appreciation.

引例 CITATIONS

  • 夫人善于自见,而文非一体,鲜能备善,是以各以所长,相轻所短。 (曹丕《典论·论文》) (人总是善于看到自己的优点,然而文章不止一种文体,很少有人擅长所有文体,因此各人总是以自己所擅长的文体写作而轻视别人不擅长的文体。)
    People are always quick to see their own strengths. However, given the rich variety of literary styles, few people are accomplished in all of them. Therefore, people always write in the styles they are good at while taking lightly other people’s works written in styles they happen to be weak in. (Cao Pi: On Literary Classics)
  • 自汉至魏,四百余年,辞人才子,文体三变。 (《宋书·谢灵运传论》) (自汉至魏,四百多年,写诗文的才子[ 众多],而诗文的体制风格, 也经历了三次大的变化。)
    For more than 400 years from the Han Dynasty to the Wei Dynasty, numerous talented poets came to the fore, and the styles of poetry and essay writing went through three major transformations. (The History of Song of the Southern Dynasties)

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