中华思想文化术语 | 南戏 Southern Opera

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南戏
Southern Opera

指北宋末年至明末清初流行于南方的汉族戏文。其源头是宋室南渡之时,产生于温州地区的戏种,在当时被称作传奇、戏文等,又被称为温州杂剧、永嘉杂剧、永嘉戏曲等。其特点是将民间唱腔引入杂剧,在村坊小曲的基础上发展起来,起初没有宫调、节奏方面的讲究,只是顺口可歌而已。元代高明(公元1301?—1370?年)创作的《琵琶记》,标志着南戏体制的完备。南戏继承了宋代杂剧,开启明代传奇,篇幅长,角色丰富,而且各种角色都可演唱。《荆钗记》《刘知远白兔记》《拜月亭》《杀狗记》是南戏代表作。我国南方戏曲中有多种声腔都是在南戏基础上发展起来的。
Nanxi (南戏), the Southern Opera, refers to the Han ethnic opera from the late Northern Song to the late Ming and the early Qing dynasties. The opera was created in theWenzhouregion when the Song government fled south. At the time, it was also known as chuanqi (传奇 drama), xiwen (戏文 play) as well as the Wenzhou Zaju (温州杂剧 Wenzhou Opera), the Yongjia Zaju (永嘉杂剧 Yongjia Opera), and the Yongjia Xiqu (永嘉戏曲 Yongjia Play). Drawing on local folk singing styles, the Southern Opera first developed on the basis of village operas without any traces of palace styles and rhymes, and it was noted for being natural and smooth in singing. A Tale of the Pipa, a play by Gao Ming (c. 1305–1370), marked the maturity of the Southern Opera. The Southern Opera inherited the Song zaju and heralded the emergence of chuanqi of the Ming Dynasty. Chuanqi plays were long enough to accommodate multiple roles and all performers sang. The Southern Opera masterpieces include The Romance of a Hairpin, The Story of the White Rabbit, The Moonlight Pavilion, and The Killing of a Dog. Many operas in southernChinawere created based on the Southern Opera.

引例 CITATIONS

  • (龙楼景、丹墀秀 )皆金门高之女也,俱有姿色,专工南戏。 (夏庭芝《青楼集》) ((龙楼景、丹墀秀)都是金门高的女儿,都长得很漂亮,擅长表演南戏。)
    Longloujing and Danchixiu were both daughters of Jinmengao. They were beautiful and good at giving South Opera performances. (Xia Tingzhi: Pleasure House Collection
  • 金元人呼北戏为杂剧,南戏为戏文。 (何良俊《四友斋丛说·词曲》) (金、元时代的人把北戏称作杂剧,南戏称作戏文。)
    The Northern Opera was known as zaju and the Southern Opera as xiwen in the Jin and Yuan dynasties. (He Liangjun: Works from the Four-Scholar Study

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