合同翻译三大惯用词详解

合同英语的用词特点(formal term) 是用词极其考究,具有特定性,要求选词专业(professional)、正式(formal)、准确(accurate)。合同英语里面使用较多的有hereby、hereof、herein三大副词,我们逐一详细解释下它们的用法。

签合同

一、hereby

英文释义:by means of , by reason of this
中文译词:特此,因此,兹
用法:常用于法律文件、合同、协议书等正式文件的开头语;在条款中需要强调时也可用。
语法:一般置于主语后,紧邻主语.

例1:
The Employer hereby covenants to pay the Contractor in consideration of the execution and completion of the Works and the remedying of defects therein the Contract Price or such other sum as may become payable under the provisions of the Contract at the time and in the manner prescribed by the Contract.
参考译文:
业主特此立约保证在合同规定的期限内,按合同规定的方式向承包人支付合同价,或合同规定的其它应支付的款项,以作为本工程施工、竣工及修补工程中缺陷的报酬。
注释:
(1) hereby: by reason of this 特此
(2) covenant: v. make a formal agreement 立约,签订合同、条约; n. legal agreement具有法律约束的正式合同
(3) completion of the Works: 工程的竣工
(4) therein: in the Works在本工程中
(5) the Contract Price: 合同总价,指工程的总造价
(6) such…as: 关系代词,相当于that,which
(7) under: in accordance with 根据,按照
(8) the provisions of the Contract: terms and conditions of the Contract合同条款

例2:
We hereby certify to the best of our knowledge that the foregoing statement is true and correct and all available information and data have been supplied herein, and that we agree to provide documentary proof upon your request.
注释:
(1)hereby:特此
(2)to the best of our knowledge:as far as we know 据我们所知
(3)foregoing statement:above-mentioned statement 上述声明
(4)herein:in this, in the statement 在声明中
(5)documentary proof 证明文件
参考译文:
特此证明,据我们所知,上述声明内容真实,正确无误,并提供了全部现有的资料和数据,我们同意,应贵方要求出具证明文件。

例3:
This Contract is hereby made and concluded by and between Co. (hereinafter referred to as Party A) and Co. (hereinafter referred to as Party B) on (Date), in (Place), China, on the principle of equality and mutual benefit and through amicable consultation.
注释:
(1)hereby:特此
(2)hereinafter referred to as Party A:以下称甲方
(3)on the principle of equality and mutual benefit:在平等互利基础上
(4)through amicable consultation:通过友好协商
参考译文:
本合同双方, 公司(以下称甲方)与 公司(以下称乙方),在平等互利基础上,通过友好协商,于 年 月 日在中国 (地点),特签订本合同。

例4:
This agreement is hereby made and entered into on (Date), by and between Co. China (hereinafter referred to as Party A) and Co. (hereinafter referred to as Party B).
注释:
(1)this agreement is hereby made and entered into:特此订立本协议
在法律文件中表示“订立本协议”可用以下4个动词:sign (make, conclude or enter into) this agreement,按照同义词连用的写作特点,可用上述4个动词中的两个来表示)。
(2)hereinafter referred to as Party B:以下简称乙方
参考译文:
本协议特由中国 公司(以下简称甲方)与 公司(以下简称乙方)于 年 月 日订立。

二、hereof

英文释义: of this
中文译词:关于此点;在本文件中
用法:在表示上文已提及的“本合同的、本文件的……”时,使用该词。例如表示本合同条件、条款时,可以说“the terms, conditions and provisions hereof”,这里hereof表示“of this Contract”;又如表示本工程的任何部分,可用“any parts hereof”,这里hereof表示“of this Works”。
语法:一般置于要修饰的名词的后面,与之紧邻。
hereof和thereof的区别:hereof强调“of this”。例如,上面的“the terms, conditions and provisions thereof”中的thereof表示of the Contract;“any parts thereof”中的thereof表示of the Works。

例1
Whether the custom of the Port is contrary to this Clause or not, the owner of the goods shall, without interruption, by day and night, including Sundays and holidays (if required by the carrier), supply and take delivery of the goods. Provided that the owner of the goods shall be liable for all losses or damages including demurrage incurred in default on the provisions hereof.
注释:
(1) Whether the custom of the Port is contrary to this Clause or not:不论港口习惯是否与本款规定相反,whether… or not:不论……是否
(2) the owner of the goods:货方
(3) without interruption:无间断地
(4) carrier:承运人
(5) in default on the provisions hereof:违反本款规定 hereof:of this Clause
参考译文:
不论港口习惯是否与本款规定相反,货方都应昼夜地,包括星期日和假日(如承运人需要),无间断地提供和提取货物。货方对违反本款规定所引起的所有损失或损坏,包括滞期应负担赔偿责任。

例2
Foreign trade dealers as mentioned in this Law shall, in accordance with the provisions hereof, cover such legal entities and other organization as are engaged in foreign trade dealings.
注释:
(1) foreign trade dealers:对外贸易经营者
(2) as mentioned in this Law:本法所称
(3) the provisions hereof:the provisions of this Law 本法规定
(4) legal entity:法人
(5) be engaged in foreign trade dealings:从事对外贸易经营活动
参考译文:
本法所称对外贸易经营者,是指依照本法规定从事对外贸易经营活动的法人和其他组织。

例3
The establishment of a limited liability company or a company limited by shares shall comply with the conditions and provisions of this Law. A company complying with the conditions and provisions hereof may be registered as a limited liability company or a company limited by shares. Provided that if a company fails to comply with the conditions and provisions hereof, the company in question shall not be registered as a limited liability company or a company limited by shares.
注释:
(1)a limited liability company:有限责任公司
(2)a company limited by shares:股份有限公司
(3)provisions hereof:本法规定 hereof: of this Law
(4)may be registered as:登记为
参考译文:
设立有限责任公司、股份有限公司,必须符合本法规定的条件。符合本法规定的条件的,登记为有限责任公司或者股份有限公司;不符合本法规定的条件的,不得登记为有限责任公司或股份有限公司。

例4
If, as a result of withdrawal or any other reasons, an arbitrator fails to perform his duties as an arbitrator, another arbitrator shall, in accordance with the provisions hereof, be selected or appointed.
注释:
(1) as a result of withdrawal or any other reasons:回避或者其它原因
(2) arbitrator:仲裁员
(3) the provisions hereof:the provisions of this Law 本法规定
(4) be selected or appointed:选定或指定
参考译文:
仲裁员因回避或者其它原因不能履行职责的,应当依照本法规定重新选定或指定仲裁员。

例5
In the event of conflict between the provisions on arbitration formulated and prepared prior to the effective date of this Law and the provisions of this Law, the provisions hereof shall prevail.
注释:
(1) conflict:相抵触
(2) prior to the effective date of this Law:本法施行前
(3) the provisions hereof shall prevail:以本法为准 hereof:of this Law
参考译文:
本法施行前制定的有关仲裁的规定与本法的规定相抵触的,以本法为准。

例6
Where, in accordance with laws, the circumstance(s) specified in Article 15 and Article 16 of this Law is /are confirmed, the organization with compensatory obligations shall pay compensation in any of the circumstance in question.
Where the claimant for compensation demands the confirmation of one of the circumstances specified in Article 15 and Article 16 hereof, and the demanded organization refuses to make the confirmation, the claimant shall have the right to lodge a complaint. Where the claimant claims compensation, the claim, shall, first, be lodged to the organization for compensatory obligations.
The provisions of Article 10, Article 11 and Article 12 hereof shall apply to/ in the procedures of compensation.
注释:
(1) the organization with compensatory obligations:赔偿义务机关
(2) shall pay compensation:应当给予赔偿
(3) the claimant for compensation:赔偿请求人
(4) Article 15 and Article 16 hereof:本法第十五条、第十六条 hereof:of this Law
(5) shall have the right to lodge a complaint:有权申诉
(6) claims compensation:要求赔偿
(7) apply to/ in:适用 More Examples: The comment applies equally here. /That argument does not apply in this case. /That applies to at least nine-tenths of the people we see about. /These remarks apply to every town in this kingdom. /The rules of safe driving apply to everyone.
参考译文:
赔偿义务机关对依法确认有本法第十五条、第十六条规定的情形之一的,应当给予赔偿。
赔偿请求人要求确认有本法第十五条、第十六条规定情形之一的,被要求的机关不予确认的,赔偿请求人有权申诉。赔偿请求人要求赔偿,应当先向赔偿义务机关提出。赔偿程序适用本法第十条、第十一条、第十二条的规定。

例7
If an arbitrator involved in one of circumstances specified in Item 4, Article 34 of this Law, and if it is serious, or those specified in Item 6, Article 58 hereof, the arbitrator in question shall, in accordance with the law, bear the legal liability and responsibility. The arbitration commission shall remove the name of the arbitrator in question from the list of arbitrators.
注释:
(1) arbitrator:仲裁员
(2) Article 58 hereof:本法第五十八条 hereof:of this Law
(3) bear the legal liability and responsibility:承担法律责任
(4) the arbitration commission:仲裁委员会
(5) remove the name of the arbitrator in question from the list of arbitrators:将其除名
参考译文:
仲裁员有本法第三十四条第四项规定的情形,情节严重的,或者有本法第五十八条第六项规定的情形的,应当依法承担法律责任,仲裁委员会应当将其除名。

例8
If, pursuant to this Law, the relevant responsible authorities with the duty of approvals fail to grant approval to such an application as meets the requirements and provisions hereof, or the company registration authorities fail to register a company whose application meets the requirements hereof, the party in question may, in accordance with laws, apply for reconsideration or bring an administrative suit.
注释:
(1) the relevant responsible authorities with the duty of approvals:履行审批职责的有关主管部门
(2) meets the requirements and provisions hereof:符合本法条件
(3) the company registration authorities:负责公司登记的主管部门
(4) the requirements hereof:本法条件 hereof: of this Law
(5) apply for reconsideration:申请复议
(6) bring an administrative suit:提起行政诉讼
参考译文:
依照本法,履行审批职责的有关主管部门,对符合本法条件的申请不予批准,或负责公司登记的主管部门不予登记,当事人可以依法申请复议或者提起行政诉讼。

例9
This Decision shall apply to the crimes committed against Article 9, Article 10 and Article 11 hereof by the staff and workers of enterprises other than limited liability companies and companies limited by shares.
注释:
(1) the crimes committed:犯罪行为
(2) against Article 9, Article 10 and Article 11 hereof:犯有本决定第九条、第十条、第十一条规定 hereof: of this Decision
参考译文:
有限责任公司、股份有限公司以外的企业职工有本决定第九条、第十条、第十一条规定的犯罪行为的,适用本决定。

例10
Companies registered and established prior to the effective date of this Law shall, in accordance with Laws, administrative regulations, local regulations and pursuant to the “Standard Opinion on Limited Liability Companies” or the “Standard Opinion on Companies Limited by Shares” issued by the relevant responsible department of the State Council, continue to exist.
Those companies not completely satisfying the requirements of this Law shall, within the specified time limit, meet the requirements hereof. Specific methods for implementation of this Law will be set out in separate regulations issued by the State Council.
注释:
(1) companies registered:已登记成立的公司
(2) the “Standard Opinion on Limited Liability Companies”:《有限责任公司规范意见》
(3) the “Standard Opinion on Companies Limited by Shares”:《股份有限公司规范意见》
(4) the relevant responsible department of the State Council国务院有关主管部门
(5) in separate regulations issued by the State Council:由国务院另行规定
参考译文:
本法施行前已登记成立的公司,应依照法律、行政法规、地方性法规和国务院有关主管部门制定的《有限责任公司规范意见》,和《股份有限公司规范意见》,继续保留。其中不完全具备本法规定的条件的,应当在规定的期限内达到本法规定的条件。具体实施办法,由国务院另行规定。

例11
Unfair competition mentioned in this Law refers to acts of such business operators as contravene the provisions hereof, with a result of damaging the lawful rights and interests of other business operators, and disturbing the socio-economic order.
注释:
(1) unfair competition:不正当竞争
(2) business operators:经营者
(3) contravene the provisions hereof:违反本法规定 the provisions hereof:本法规定 hereof:of this Law
(4) the lawful rights and interests:合法权益
(5) disturbing the socio-economic order:扰乱社会经济秩序
参考译文:
本法所称的不正当竞争,是指经营者违反本法规定,损害其他经营者的合法权益,扰乱社会经济秩序的行为。

三、hereto

英文释义:to this
中文译词:至此,在此上。
用法:在表示上文已提及的“本合同的……本文件的……”时,使用该词。例如表示“本合同双方”,可以说“the Parties hereto”,这里hereto表示“to this Contract”;表示“本协议附件4”,可用“Appendix 4 hereto”,这里hereto表示“to this Agreement”。
语法:一般置于要修饰的名词的后面,与之紧邻。
hereto和thereto的区别:同前面所言hereof和thereof的区别类似,hereto强调的是“to this”。

例1
All disputes arising from the performance of this Contract shall, through amicable negotiations, be settled by the Parties hereto. Should, through negotiations, no settlement be reached, the case in question shall then be submitted for arbitration to the China International Economic and Trade Arbitration Commission, Beijing and the arbitration rules of this Commission shall be applied. The award of the arbitration shall be final and binding upon the Parties hereto. The Arbitration fee shall be borne by the losing party unless otherwise awarded by the Arbitration Commission.
注释:
(1) the performance of this Contract:履行本合同
(2) through amicable negotiations:友好协商
(3) the Parties hereto:the Parties to this Contract本合同双方
(4) shall then be submitted for arbitration:提交进行仲裁
(5) the China International Economic and Trade Arbitration Commission, Beijing:中国国际经济贸易仲裁委员会(北京)
(6) the arbitration rules of this Commission:其仲裁规则
(7) the award of the arbitration:仲裁裁决
(8) unless otherwise awarded by the Arbitration Commission:仲裁委员会另有裁定的除外
参考译文:
对于因履行本合同所发生的一切争议,本合同双方应友好协商解决,如协商无法解决争议,则应将争议提交中国国际经济贸易仲裁委员会(北京),依据其仲裁规则进行仲裁。仲裁裁决是终局性的,对双方都有约束力。仲裁费用应由败诉方承担,但仲裁委员会另有裁定的除外。

例2
“Patented Technology” means such patent, and such applications for the patent as are presently owned or will hereafter be acquired in the future by Party B, or as Party B has or may have the right to control, or as are permitted to be transferred during the effective period of this Contract in any or all countries of the world, and as are applicable to or may be used in the manufacture of Contract Products specified by the Parties hereto.
注释:
(1) patented technology:专利技术
(2) patent:专利
(3) application for the patent:专利申请
(4) may have the right to control:可能有权控制的
(5) permitted to be transferred in any or all countries of the world:在世界任何国家许可转让
(6) Contract Products specified by the Parties hereto:本合同双方规定的本合同产品 hereto: to this Contract
参考译文:
“专利技术”,系指乙方目前拥有的或未来获得的,或乙方有权或可能有权控制的,或在本合同有效期间在世界任何国家许可转让的,适用于或可能适用制造本合同双方规定的本合同产品的专利和专利申请。

例3
“Technical Documents” means the data and the information specified in Appendix 1 hereto, such as engineering, manufacturing and original information relating to the manufacture and maintenance of the Contract Products, including drawings, blueprints, design sheets, material specifications, photographs, photostats and general data, and design and their specifications relating to manufacturing euipment, tools and facilities. Provided that the above-mentioned information shall be such information as is only available to Party B and applicable to the business operation of Party A under this Contract.
注释:
(1) technical documents:技术资料
(2) the data and the information:资料
(3) engineering:工程
(4) manufacturing:制造
(5) original information:原始资料
(6) blueprint:蓝本
(7) design sheets:设计图表
(8) material specifications:材料规格
(9) photostats:影印资料
(10) general data:一般资料
(11) design and their specifications relating to manufacturing euipment, tools and facilities:与制造设备、工具和装置有关的设计及其说明书
参考译文:
“技术资料”系指列于附件1与制造和维修合同产品有关的工程、制造及原始资料,包括与制造设备、工具和装置有关的图纸、蓝本、设计图表、材料规格、照片、影印资料和一般资料、设计及其说明书等,但上述资料仅限于乙方拥有的资料和甲方用于本合同业务活动的资料。

例4
If Party B demands to audit the accounts of Party A, Party B shall, within 10 days after receiving the written notice issued by Party A under Sub-Clause 3.4 of this Contract, notify Party A of the mater in question. The specific contents and procedure of auditing accounts are detailed in Appendix 4 hereto.
注释:
(1) audit the accounts of Party A:查核甲方的帐目
(2) Sub-Clause 3.4 of this Contract:本合同第3.4款
(3) the specific contents and procedure of auditing accounts:其具体的查帐内容和程序
(4) Appendix 4 hereto:本合同附件4 hereto:to this Contract
参考译文:
乙方如需查核甲方的帐目时,应在接到甲方依上述本合同第3.4款规定开出的书面通知后10天之内通知甲方,其具体的查帐内容和程序详见本合同附件4。

例5
The parties to this Agreement agree that either Party hereto shall, immediately and fully, notify the other Party hereto of any such matters comprising an improvement, modification, further invention or design as the Party in question may discover, make or develop with respect to manufacture and assembly of the Licensed Products or components thereof.
The Party discovering, making or developing the subject matter in question may, at its own expense and its own name, file application for Letter Patent or take other necessary legal steps to protect the same, and any patent arising therefrom shall belong to the Party in question. The other Party may, during the effective period hereof, make use of, and sell products utilizing such improvement, modification, further invention or design (whether patented or un-patented) without charge and royalty fee in any manner consistent with this agreement.
注释:
(1) either Party hereto:本协议各方 (不译成“one Party hereto)。
(2) improvement, modification, further invention or design:改进、修正、更新本发明或设计
(3) discover, make or develop:开发
(4) manufacture and assembly of the Licensed Products or components thereof:生产及装配许可证产品或部件
(5) file application for Letter Patent:申请专利
(6) take other necessary legal steps to protect the same:其它必要的法律保护程序 the same: Letter Patent
(7) any patent arising therefrom:由此产生的专利
(8) consistent with this agreement:与本协议不相矛盾
参考译文:
本协议各方同意,一方对于有关生产及装配许可证产品或部件所做的改进、修正、更新发明或设计均应立即全部通知另一方。开发改进的一方可以自负费用并以自身名义申请专利或采取其它必要的法律保护程序,由此产生的专利将属于该方所有。在本协议的有效期内,另一方可以与本协议不相矛盾的方式无偿使用和销售利用改进、修正、更新本发明或设计(无论其是否取得专利权)生产的产品。

例6
The Parties to this Agreement agree that Y shall supply to FCAM certain license and technical assistance for manufacturing Products. The Technical Assistance Agreement to be concluded between FCAM and Y shall be deemed to be an attachment as Appendix 2 hereto (hereinafter referred to as the “Technical Assistance Agreement”).
注释:
(1) certain license and technical assistance for manufacturing Products:有关生产产品的许可证和技术服务
(2) the technical assistance agreement:技术服务协议
(3) Appendix 2 hereto:本协议附件2 hereto:to this Agreement
参考译文:
本协议双方同意Y将向FCAM提供有关生产产品的许可证和技术服务,FCAM和Y将订立技术服务协议并作为本协议附件2(以下称作“技术服务协议”)。

例7
The Parties to this Agreement agree and ensure that FCAM will, to the maximum extent practicably possible, use the forms required by Y for such data on management and financial information as are given by FCAM to the Parties hereto, and that FCAM shall prepare and keep accounting and financial records and books available for inspection or audit by either Party hereto.
注释:
(1) to the maximum extent practicably possible:尽实际可能最大限度地
(2) data on management and financial information:管理和财务信息材料
(3) prepare and keep accounting and financial records and books:建好会计和财务帐目
(4) available for inspection or audit by either Party hereto:以备本协议各方的检查或审计 either Party hereto:either Party to this Agreement本协议双方 inspection:检查 audit:审计
参考译文:
本协议双方同意保证FCAM将尽实际可能最大限度地使用Y所要求的表格式样,用于FCAM向协议各方提供管理和财务信息材料;并且FCAM应建好会计和财务帐目以备协议双方的检查或审计。

例8
The Parties to this Agreement agree that the Board of Directors authorized by the Parties hereto to administrate or manage FCAM shall be responsible for approving the overall business management plan of the company, and monitoring the execution of the plan in question. Provided that the business management plan in question shall be submitted to the Parties hereto for review and approval.
注释:
(1) Board of Directors authorized by the Parties hereto:本协议双方授权的董事会 hereto:to this Agreement
(2) to administrate or manage FCAM:管理FCAM administrate:行政管理 manage:业务管理
(3) the overall business management plan of the company:公司整体经营计划
(4) monitor the execution of the plan in question:监督该计划的执行
(5) review and approval:审阅和批准
参考译文:
本协议双方同意授权管理FCAM的董事会对公司整体经营计划的报批和监督执行负责。该经营计划需要提交协议双方审阅和批准。

例9
The Parties to this Agreement agree, and will cause FCAM to agree, that Y will sell to FCAM, and FCAM will buy from Y, all such specialized machinery and equipment as is determined through mutual consultation by and between Y and FCAM for the effective utilization of the technical know-how supplied by Y to FCAM under the Technical Assistance Agreement at such prices and on such terms and conditions as are determined by and between the Parties hereto.
注释:
(1) specialized machinery and equipment:特定机器设备 equipment:(单数形式)设备
(2) determined through mutual consultation:协商决定
(3) the effective utilization of the technical know-how:有效使用技术诀窍
(4) terms and conditions:条件
(5) (such…) as:作关系代词,意为which, that
参考译文:
本协议双方同意并将使FCAM同意Y将向FCAM出售,FCAM从Y购买经过Y和FCAM协商决定的特定机器设备,以保证根据技术服务协议由Y向FCAM提供的技术诀窍得到有效使用,并以协议双方同意的价格和条件成交。

例10
The termination of this Contract shall not in any way affect the outstanding claims and liabilities existing between the Parties hereto upon the expiration of the validity of the Contract and the debtor shall continue to be kept liable for paying the outstanding debts to the creditor.
注释:
(1) the termination of this Contract:本合同期满
(2) outstanding claims and liabilities:未了债务
(3) debtor:债务人
(4) creditor:债权人
参考译文:
本合同期满时,双方之间发生的未了债务不受合同期满的影响,债务人应向债权人继续支付未了债务

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